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Full text of "The Union Haggadah : home service for the Passover"

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* {Jni 0 n * Haggadah* 



BM675.P4 Z663 1923 
Union Haqgadah : home 
service for 
the Passover / 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2019 with funding from 
Princeton Theological Seminary Library 


njy n-n7 


for the 





Printed in the United States of America 


The Seder — A Foreword. VII 

The Union Haggadah.VIII 

Rites and Symbols of the Seder. xi 

Directions for Setting the Table. xiv 

Order of the Service. XVI 


A. Before the Meal 

Lighting of the Festival Lights. 3 

Kiddush — text and music. 4 

The Festive Cup, music. 14 

The Spring-tide of the Year, music. 17 

The Four Questions. 18 

The Four Sons. 20 

The Story of the Oppression. 21 

Dayenu. 28 

The Passover Symbols. 34 

The Watchnight of the Eternal. 38 

Psalms CXIII and CXIV — text ana music. 42 

Blessings. ,,,,,,,, . 48 

B. After the Meal 

To Thee Above, music. 54 

Grace after the Meal. 56 

Psalms CXVII and CXVIII: 1-4 —text and music ... 62 

Psalms CXVIII: 5-29 — text and music. 70 

The Final Benediction. 78 

God of Might, music. 80 

Addir Hu, music. 81 

Our Souls We Raise, music. 82 

Ki Lo Noeh, music. 84 

A Madrigal of Numbers — text and music. 86 

Had Gadyo — text and music... 94 

Vay’hi Bahatzi Halay’loh. 115 

En Kelohenu, music. 118 

America, music.120 

History of the Passover 

A. The Festival of the Shepherds. 125 

B. The Farmer’s Spring Festival. 127 

C. The Feast of Israel’s Birth . 129 

D. The National Celebration 

1. The Passover during the Second Temple. 130 

2. The Passover Sacrifice. 131 

E. The Feast of Freedom. 133 

The Ethical Significance of the Passover. 134 

Moses. 137 

Preparation for the Passover 

A. Time of the Feast. 139 

B. Matzo-Baking. 140 

C. Removing the Leaven. 141 

D. Kashering the Utensils. 142 

Survivals of the Ancient Passover 

A. The Samaritan Passover. 143 

B. The Passover as observed by the Falashas. 145 

Passover and Christendom 

A. Passover and Easter. 147 

B. Passover and Prejudice. 148 

C. Blood Accusation. 148 

D. Christian Protests. 149 

Reform Judaism and Passover. 151 

Israel’s Journey.. 152 

Freedom. 152 

The Season of Joy. 153 

The Secret of the Feast. 153 

The Haggadah 

A. Growth of its Literature. 155 

B. Reform Judaism and the Haggadah. 157 

C. Illuminated Haggadahs. 159 









3Tlje Metier—9 Jfuretonrb 

Among the ceremonials which nurtured the Jewish 
idealism of generations, a place of peculiar charm is 
held by the seder, celebrated on the Passover Eve, 
and repeated on the following night by those who ob- 
serve the second days of festivals. Literally, the name 
means the order of the service. The ritual pro- 
vided for the service is known as the haggadah, 
that is, the narrative of the Passover. The cere- 
mony grows out of the several injunctions in the 
Pentateuch for the Israelite to relate to his child- 
ren the story of the Exodus from Egypt, and to explain 
to them the meaning of the rites and symbols connected 
with the celebration of the Passover. 

In the Seder are blended, in happy combination, the 
influences which have contributed so much toward in- 
spiring our people, though scattered throughout the 
world, with a genuine feeling of kinship. Year after 
year, the Seder has thrilled them with an appreciation 
of the glories of their past, imbued them with an heroic 
power of endurance under the severest trials and per- 
secutions, and quickened within them the enthusiasm 
of high ideals of freedom. 

It has helped to forge “not easily dissoluble links” 
between the individual and the Jewish people. In his 
tribute to the poetic beauty of the Seder, Heinrich 
He : ne expressed a sentiment, evidently founded on his 
personal experience: “It thrills the heart as though 
one heard the lilt of some sweet lullaby. Even those 
Jews who have fallen away from the faith of their 
fathers in the mad pursuit of other joys and other glo- 
ries are moved to the very depths of their being when 
by chance they hear again the old Passover melodies 
once so dear to them.” 


tElje Union 2?aggatraf) 

he moral and spiritual worth of the 
hallowed institution of the Seder, 
which has become a vital part of the 
Jewish consciousness, is priceless. We 
should suffer an irretrievable loss, were 
it allowed to pass into neglect. To 
avert such a danger, has been the anx- 
ious thought to which the Union Haggadah owes its 

In “ carrying on the chain of piety which links the 
generations to each other”, it is necessary frankly to 
face and honestly to meet the needs of our own day. 
The old Haggadah, while full of poetic charm, contains 
passages and sentiments wholly out of harmony with 
the spirit of the present time. Hence the proper edit- 
ing of the old material demanded much care and at- 
tention on the part of the editors of the first edition 
of the Union Haggadah. Benefiting by their labors, 
those entrusted with the task of its revision are able 
to present a work at once modern in spirit and rich in 
those traditional elements that lend color to the service. 

The Seder service was never purely devotional. Its 
intensely spiritual tone mingled with bursts of good 
humor, its serious observations on Jewish life and des- 
tiny with comments in a lighter vein, and its lofty po- 
etry with playful ditties for the entertainment of the 


children. It assumes the form of an historical drama pre- 
sented at the festal table, with the father and children as 
leading actors. The children question and the father 
answers. He explains the nature of the service, preach- 
es, entertains, and prays. In the course of the evening, 
a complete philosophy of Jewish history is revealed, 
dealing with Israel’s eventful past, with his deliverance 
from physical and from spiritual bondage, and with his 
great future world-mission. In its variety, the Hag- 
gadah reflects the moods of the Jewish spirit. Rab- 
binical homily follows dignified narrative, soulful pray- 
ers and Psalms mingle with the Had Gadyo and the 
madrigal of numbers, Ehod Mi Yode'a. 

The assignment to the child of a prominent part in 
the Seder service is in consonance with the biblical 
ordinance: “And thou shalt tell thy son in that day” 
(Ex. XIII: 8). The visible symbols, the living word 
of instruction, and the ceremonial acts, are sure to 
stimulate religious feeling. Parent and child are thus 
brought into a union of warm religious sympathy, 
which is all the more indissoluble because strengthened 
by the ties of natural affection. Their souls are fired 
with the love of liberty, and their hearts are roused to 
greater loyalty to Israel and to Israel’s God of Freedom. 



Bites anti ^jmibols nf the !§>eber 

the seder service is marked with special concern 
for the children. A striking contrast is offered between 
the ceremonies of this service of the Passover Eve and 
the conduct of the usual meal, so that the child is 
sure to ask for an explanation, and thus to give 
the coveted opportunity to tell the story of Israel’s 
deliverance, and to impress the lesson of faith in God, 
the Defender of right and the Deliverer of the oppressed. 
These symbols aim to put us in sympathy with our 
forefathers of the generation of the Exodus; to feel the 
trials of their embittered life of bondage and the joy 
of their subsequent triumph of freedom. 

wine. As in all Jewish ceremonials of rejoicing, 
such as the welcoming of the Sabbath and the festivals, 
the solemnizing of marriages, and the naming of a 
child, so at the Seder, wine is used as a token of fes- 
tivity. Mead, apple-cider, any fruit juice, or especially 
unfermented raisin wine, is commonly used at the Se- 
der service. 

the four cups. Each participant in the service 
is expected to drink four cups of wine. Even the 
poorest of the poor who subsist on charity were en- 
joined to provide themselves with wine for the four 
cups. This number is determined by the four divine 
promises of redemption made to Israel in Exodus VI: 
67 ־ : V’hotzesi, V’hitzalti, V’goalti and V’lokahti, that 
is, bringing out of bondage, deliverance from servitude, 
redemption from all dependence in Egypt, and selec- 
tion as “ the people of the Lord The first cup serves 
for Kiddush as on other holy days and on Sabbath; 
the second is taken at the conclusion of the first part 
of the Seder; the third follows the grace after the meal, 
and the last comes at the end of the .second part of 
the Seder 


the cup of Elijah. The fifth promise of God 
(V'hevesi) to bring Israel into Canaan, which follows 
the four promises of redemption, gave rise to th< 
question of the need of a fifth cup of wine in the Seder. 
Popular belief left the decision of all mooted questions 
of law and ritual to the prophet Elijah, the central 
hero of Jewish legend. The popular mind believed this 
great champion of righteousness and of pure worship 
of God to be immortal, and viewed him as the 
coming forerunner of the Messiah, whose task it 
will be — among other things — to announce the good 
tidings of peace and salvation, to effect a union of 
hearts between parents and their children, to comfort 
the sorrowing, to raise the dead, and to establish the 
divine kingdom of righteousness on earth. 

The fifth cup, the need of which was left to his 
decision, came to be known as the Cup of Elijah; and 
gave rise to the custom of opening the door during the 
Seder service, that the long expected messenger of the 
final redemption of mankind from all oppression might 
enter the home as a most welcome guest. Our fathers 
were thus helped, in times of darkness and persecution, 
to keep in mind the Messianic era of freedom, justice, 
and good-will. Stripped of its legendary form, it is 
still the hope for the realization of which Israel ever 
yearns and strives. 

matzo. The unleavened bread or the bread of 
affliction reminds us of the hardships that our fathers 
endured in Egypt, and of the haste with which they 
departed thence. Having no time to bake their bread, 
they had to rely for food upon sun-baked dough which 
they carried with them. 

watercress or parsley. Either of these greens 
is suggestive of the customary oriental relish 


and is used as a token of gratitude to God for the pro- 
ducts of the earth. The purpose of dipping it in salt 
water or vinegar is to make it palatable. 

moror. The bitter herb — a piece of horserad- 
ish—represents the embittered life of the Israelites 
in Egypt. 

haroses. This mixture of apples, blanched al- 
monds, and raisins, finely chopped and flavored with 
cinnamon and wine, was probably originally a con- 
diment. Owing to its appearance, it came to be re- 
garded as representing the clay with which the Israel- 
ites made bricks, or the mortar used in the great 
structures erected by the bondmen of Egypt. 

the roasted shank-bone is an emblem of the 
Paschal lamb. 

the egg (roasted) is the symbol of the free-will 
burn (:־offering brought on every day of the feast, dur- 
ing the existence of the Temple in Jerusalem. 

aphikomon. Aphikomon is derived from the 
Greek, meaning after-meal or dessert. The origin 
of this custom must be traced to the Paschal 
lamb which was eaten on Passover night. It was 
customary to reserve a small portion of the lamb to 
be eaten at the close of the meal. When sacrifices 
had ceased, a piece of the matzo was eaten instead. 
The Aphikomon , hidden early in the Seder, is left to 
the end of the meal, in order that the children may be 
kept alert during the entire service. In connection 
with this, a sort of game of paying forfeits originated. 
The head of the family good-naturedly takes no note 
of the spiriting away of the aphikomon by the children, 
who do not surrender it until the master of the house 
is forced to redeem it by some gift, in order that the 
meal may be concluded. 


©irections for Getting the ®able 

N the table, in front of the person 
who conducts the service, place 

A large platter containing Seder 

a. Three matzos each of which is 
covered separately in the folds of a 
napkin or special cover. Two of them 
represent the “ Lehem Mishneh — double portion ” 
of the Sabbath and the holv days, and the third 
the “Lehem ‘Oni — bread of affliction”. These 
are also taken to represent the three religious di- 
visions of Israel: the “Cohen” (priest), “Levi” 
(associate priest) and “Yisroel” (lay-Israelite). 

b. The roasted shank-bone (of a lamb) 

c. A roasted egg. 

Also a piece of horseradish, a bit of karoses , and 

a spray of parsley. 

Besides these, there are placed on the table for the 

L A plate of bitter herbs (horseradish), cut into 
small pieces. 

2. A dish of haroses. 

3. Parsley or watercress. 

4. A dish of salt water. 


5. A cup of wine is placed at each plate, and a large 
brimming goblet in the center of the table for the 
prophet Elijah. 

The meal served during the Seder follows the form 
of a banquet of olden times. Hence the reference, in 
the Hebrew texts of the Four Questions, to the custom 
of reclining on the left side — a position assumed by 
free men. Preserving this custom, many households 
still provide a large cushioned armchair for the person 
conducting the Seder. 

The table is usually spread with the best of the 
family’s china and silverware, and adorned with flow- 
ers, in keeping with the festive spirit. 


<©rber of tfje H>erbtce 

1. Recite the Kiddush (Sanctification 
of the festival). 


2. Partake of parsley dipped in salt 

כך פס 

3. Break the middle Matzo, and hide 
one part to be eaten at the end 
of the meal as the Aphikomon. 


4. Tell the story of Israel’s deliver- 
ance from Egyptian bondage. 


5. Recite the blessing before the meal, מוציא, מצלו 

including the special blessing 
over Matzo. 

6. Combine Matzo, Moror and Haro- "11 "ID 

ses and eat them together. 

7. Partake of the festival meal. 

8. Conclude the meal by eating the 


שלחן עורר 



9. Say grace after the meal. 

10. Recite the remainder of the Hallel' 



11. End with a prayer for the accept- 
ance of the service. 


T : * 


Wi)t ^eber i£>ertrice 

a. before tfjr jWeal 

Seder eve 

קדש . 1 

Eigfjttng tfje Jfeatibal Eights 

To symbolize the joy which the festival brings into the Jew- 
ish home, the mistress kindles the lights and recites the following 

ברוך אתה יי אליהינו מלך העולם אשר 

V ־ : IT r IT 1 V IV I” VS T : T ־ I T 

קדשנו במצותיו וצונו להדליק נר שלמשבת ושל)־ 

V ; T ־־ v ••I • ; - : דו • : T : • : IT s I • 

. יום טוב 


mitzvosov v’tzivonu l’hadlik NER 
shel {on Sabbath add : shabbos v’shel) 


אתה יי אליהינו מלך 

I V IV 1•• v: 


T : 

העולם. שהחינו וקימנו והגיענו לזמן הזה: 

IT * • S IT 5 I * S IT VS IV V IT r IT ־ : - I ־ V 


sheheheyonu v'kiy'monu v'higionu LAZMAN 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the uni- 
verse, who hast sanctified us by Thy commandments, 
and hast commanded us to kindle the {on Sabbath 
add: Sabbath and) festival lights. 

Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the uni- 
verse, who hast kept us alive and sustained us and 
brought us to this season. 

May our home be consecrated, O God, by the light 
of Thy countenance, shining upon us in blessing, and 
bringing us peace! 



On Sabbath eve begin here. 

The master of the house lifts up the wine-cup and says: 

ET US praise God and thank Him for 
all the blessings of the week that 1 's 
gone; for life, health and strength; for 
home, love and friendship; for the dis- 
cipline of our trials and temptations; 
for the happiness of our success and 
prosperity. Thou hast ennobled us, 
O God, by the blessings of work, and in love and 
grace sanctified us by the blessings of rest, through the 
commandment, “Six days shalt thou labor and do all 
thy work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath unto the 
Lord thy God 

On weeks days begin here. 

With song and praise, and with the symbols of our 
feast, let us renew the memories of our past. 

Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the 
universe, who hast chosen us from all peoples and 
exalted and sanctified us with Thy commandments. 
In love hast Thou given us, O Lord our God, solemn 
days of joy and festive seasons of gladness, even this 
day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, a holy convo- 
cation unto us, a memorial of the departure from 
Egypt Thou hast chosen us for Thy service and 



On Sabbath eve begin here. 

ו□ השען , : ויכלו השמים והארץ וכל 
צבאם: ויכלאלהים ביום השביעי 

B • ••• • <■׳ ■ * » « 

• • • • • T i 

מלאכתו אשר עשה וישבת ביום 

• T T • • • • 

השביעי מכל־מלאכתו אשר עשה: 

T T 

ויברך אלהים את־יום השביעי ויקדש אתו כי בו 

• •• I - : - • • : ־ V ״ VI I V IT S • 

: שבת מכל ־מלאכתו אשר־ברא אלהים לעשות 

I 1 ־ *V: T T V -S : - : T • - T 

On week days begin here. 

*)ברוך אתה ייאלהינומלך העולם. אשר בחר 

I T ־ VI T t T •״ IT ~ IT I V IV I :־ IT V ־ 

בנו מכל־עם. ורוממנו מכל־לשון. וקדשנו 

IT ״ I T T * IT I : T T : ״ IT : I 

במצותיו. ותתן־לנו יי אלהינו באהבה. ושבתות 

: " : v: T : IT I V • - T •״ I" : I די־ T “ IT 

למנוחה. חמועדים לשמחה. חגים וזמנים לששון 

״ : I T :־־ • 1 T 5 * I ־ * : ־ • : I T 

את־יום נהשבת הזה. ואת־יום] חג המצות הזה. 

•• “ « •• • •• ■י • ״ “ •• 

• • • • T » 

זמן חרותנו מקרא קדש. זכר ליציאת מצרים: 
כי בנו בחרת. ואתנו סרשת מכל־העמים. וושבת 1 

T ־ 1 

*) The Kidd»’sh may be chanted to the music given on the 
following pages. 


hast made us sharers in the blessings of Thy holy 
festivals. Blessed art Thou, 0 Lord, who sanctifiest 
Israel and the festive seasons. 

All read in unison: 

Boruch atto adonoi elohenu melech ho'olom 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, Ruler of the 
world, who hast created the fruit of the vine. 

Drink the first cup of wine. 


ומועדי קדשוי. נבאהבה וברצון]. בשמחה 

ן ן- •• 1 I : sir : ־ 1 ד־ T : • : I t : IT 

ובששון הנחלתנו: ברוד אתה יי. מקדש והשבת 

: I T it:-:• I T ־ 7 “ “ ••I“: T: T 

n ישראל והזמנים: 

־ — • 

• • 

All read in unison: 

ברוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם בורא פרי 

• : “ IV ^ IT I ••• IV I•• VI T: T ־ I T 

ז • : t 



Drink the first cup of wine. 



SOLO. Reci♦,. 





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The Fest ive Cup 


Some parsley, lettuce or watercress is distributed to all pres- 
ent who dip it in salt water or in vinegar, and before partak- 
ing of it say in unison: 

ברוך אתה יי אליהינו מלך העולם בורא פרי 

ז• •• it ^ IT I V IV ו *• VS T: T I T 


IT T -5 IT 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the uni- 
verse, Creator of the fruit of the earth. 

.יחץ • 3 

The leader breaks the middle Matzo, leaving one half on 
the Seder-dish, and hiding the other half as the Aphikomon to 
be eaten at the end of the meal. 

The Spring-tide of the Year 

Allegro con brio Tradition*! 

A * 

/V f! J - "J j J nij. 1 

a T"> 1 11 •״ • Li • « * J a 1.1 . 

1. Be - hold, it is the spring-tide of the year! 

2. And in the spring, when all the earth and sky 

■ Hr 1 n 1 r 1 |M 1 i r f nr 

4 ^ 


win - ters gloom-y reign, 
still from age to age 



0 - ver and past is 
Re - joice to ■ geth־er, 


Hg jf י «ך sC 



l ,[) r-^Jr 


9 J ־־* ־'־ 



The hap ־ py time of sing-ing birds is near, 

Rings out the sol - emn chant of daysgone by, 

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3. For as from out the house of bondage went 

The host of Israel, in their midst they bore 
The heritage'of law and freedom, blent 
In holy unity for evermore. 

4 . And still from rising unto setting sun 

Shall this our heritage and watchword be: 
4 ‘The Lord our God, the Lord ohr God is One; 
His law alone it is that makes us freel” 


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ינא־ס סעד־סד x px 

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יאסי •ג ׳יל• נ־ 6 די־׳ 
ת!ד• < 1x כסיגדאיפו 

מגיד . 4 

The leader lifts up the Matzos and says: 

Lo! This is the bread of affliction which our fathers 
ate in the land of Egypt. Let all who are hungry 
come and eat. Let all who are in want come and 
celebrate the Passover with us. May it be God’s will 
to redeem us from all trouble and from all servitude. 
Next year at this season, may the whole house of 
Israel be free! 

The leader replaces the dish upon the table. 

®fie Jfour Questions 

The youngest person at the table asks: ' ; ,.׳ 

י< . 

HY IS this night different from all 
other nights? On all other nights, 
we eat either leavened or unleav- 
ened bread. Why, on this night, 
do we eat only unleavened bread? 

2. On all other nights, we eat all kinds 
of herbs. Why, on this night, do 
we eat especially bitter herbs? 

3. On all other nights, we do not dip herbs in any 
condiment. Why, on this night, do we dip them 
in salt water and haroses? 

4. On all other nights, we eat without special festiv- 
ities. Why. on this night, do we hold this Seder 



• «-*י־יי 
; ך״״י״ג• 

* בדנדוסתס 

= ן־וי־-^־דנב 

"#גוו , ** וו 

_ •ו»גיילו 

-.* 7 




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מגיד . 4 

הא לחמא עניא די אכלו אבהתנא בארעא 

T : TS T * ד■ TITTT-: IT :־ TS 

ך־מצרןם. כל דכפין י״יתי ויכל. כל־דצריר דתי 
רפסה. יהא רעוא ־ז קךם מרנא די בשםיא. די 
לפרק ז יתנא מן־כל־ע^א. רהוא כל־בית :שראל. 
בשתא דאתיא בני חורין: 

5 T : ־ ! J T ״ I 

The youngest person asks: 

ה $תנה הלילה הזה מכל הלילות. 

שבכל הלילות אנו אוכלין חמץ 

I •• T 1*5 IT " T : V 

ומצה. הלילה הזה כלו מצה: 

T — • • * • ■ * 

שבכל הלילות אנו או?לין שאר 
ןו־קות. הלילה הזה מרור: שבכל הלילות אין 
אנו מטבילין אפילו פעם אחת. הלילה הזה שתי 

" • י r t —ן ־• V - T : 1“ “ TV • •י 

פעמים: ש?כל הלילות אנו אוכלין בין יושבין 
וביו מסבין. הלילה הזה כלנו מסבין: 

The leader answers: 

We celebrate to-night because we were Pharaoh’s 
bondmen in Egypt, and the Lord our God delivered 
us with a mighty hand. Had not the Holy One, bless- 
ed be He, redeemed our fathers from Egypt, we, our 
children, and our children’s children would have re- 
mained slaves. Therefore even if all of us were wise 
and well-versed in the Torah, it would still be our 
duty from year to year, to tell the story of the de- 
liverance from Egypt. Indeed to dwell at length on 
it, is accounted praiseworthy. 

®fie Jfour ftons 

A fitting answer to the questions 
of each of the four types of the 
sons of Israel, does the Torah explain 
the meaning of this night’s celebra- 

The wise son eager to learn asks 
earnestly: “What mean the testimonies 
and the statutes and the ordinances, which the Lord 
our God hath commanded us?” To him thou shalt 
say: “This service is held in order to worship the 
Lord our God, that it may be well with us all the days 
of our life”. 

The wicked son inquires in a mocking spirit: “What 
mean ye by this service?” As he says ye and not 
WE, he excludes himself from the household of Israel. 
Therefore thou shouldst turn on him and say: “It 
is because of that which the Lord did for me when I 
came forth out of Egypt”. For me and not for him, 
for had he been there, he would not have been found 
worthy of being redeemed. 

The leader answers: 

עבדים היינו לפרעה במצרים. ויוציאנו יי 

ד- r : - : r t • r : • : דו • - 1 “ 1 T s 

אלהינו משם ביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה. ואלו לא 

1: • I TT “5 T : T * !••VI ־ : T : • 

הוציא הקדוש ברוך הוא את־־אבותינו ממצרים. 

• it : • • 1•• ~s v It I t “ • 

הרי אנו ובנינו ובני בנינו משעבדים היינו 

די• T IT ••ו : I" T ־. .* T * T S •ו 

לפרעה במצרים. ואפילו כלנו חכמים. 

: יי־ : IT : • : r • ■ד 1 IT •• r ־ T * 

כלנו נבונים. כלנו זקנים. כלנו יודעים את¬ 

.* I : IT *. * : IT • .־ V • : IT 

התורה. מצוה עלינו לספר ביציאת מצרים. 

1“ T T : • T : ־ * I • ־ 1 ׳ IT S • 

וכל המרבה לספר ביציאת מצרים הרי זה משבח: 

I* • I 

: •• ז 

נגד ארבעה בנים דברה תורה. 


T T 

אחד חכם. ואחר רשע. ואחד תם. 


ואחד שאינו יודע לשאל: 

! • “I•• I IV T V : 

חכם מה הוא אמר. מה העדת 

T T 

I ״• IT 

והחקים והמשפטים אשר צוה יי אלהינו אותנו: 

5 I 1' \ P J “ ׳ IT I” VI T: T • V -S • T I 

ואף אתה אמר־לו. ליראה את־יי אליהינו. לטוב 

S ־ I ־ T VI T : ׳ : I•• VI T : V T : 

לנו כל־הימים: 

T IT ־ T • 

רשע מה הוא אומר. מה העבדה הזאת לכם. 

IT IT T •• T r T T ־ v T 

לכם ולא לו. ולפי שהוציא את עצמו מן הכלל 

W • • •• • • י•■ 

כפר בעקר. ואף אתה הקהה את־שניו ואמור לו 

T ־ : • I “ S I T ־ T ־ I VS IV T • V ••Is 

בעבור זה עשה יי לי בצאתי ממצרים. לי ולא 

- 1 ד־ 1 IT : • • • : • T : T T V • • 

לך. אלו היית שם. לא היית נגאל: 

T : * T 1• T T T I* T • IT 


The simple son indifferently asks: ‘‘What is this?״ 
To him thou shalt say: “By strength of hand the 
Lord brought us out of Egypt, out of the house of 

And for the son who is unable to inquire, thou shalt 
explain the whole story of the Passover; as it is said: 
“And thou shalt tell thy son in that day, saying ‘It 
is because of that which the Lord did for me when I 
came forth out of Egypt’”. 

תם מה הוא אומר. מדדזאת. 

— T T 

ואמרת אליו, 

! IT ־ : T “ IT 

בחזק יד הוציאנו יי ממצרים מבית עברים: 

: 1“ : • • T ; IT I T I V I • • ״ 5 ־ T • 

ושאינו יודע לשאול. את פתח לו. שנאמר 

: IV *• ו ••ן • : - : 2 - 1“ V* IV V 

והגדת לבנך ביום ההוא לאמר. בעבור זה עשרי 

: • ״ : I : • : T ־ ־ •• —ן ד T T V I 

יי לי בצאתי ממצרים: 

E \je g>tory of tfje Oppression 

T IS well for all of us whether young 
or old to consider how God’s help has 
been our unfailing stay and support 
through ages of trial and persecution. 
Ever since He called our father Abra- 
ham from the bondage of idolatry to 
His service of truth, He has been our 
Guardian; for not in one country alone nor in one age 
have violent men risen up against us, but in every 
generation and in every land, tyrants have sought to 
destroy us; and the Holy One, blessed be He, has 
delivered us from their hands. 

The Torah tells us that when Jacob our father was 
a homeless wanderer, he went down into Egypt, and 
sojourned there, few in number. All the souls of his 
household were threescore and ten. And Joseph was 
already in Egypt; he was the governor over the land. 
And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and 
gave them a possession, as Pharaoh had commanded. 
And Israel dwelt in the land of Goshen; and they got 
them possessions therein, and were fruitful, and mul- 
tiplied exceedingly. 

And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that 
generation. Now there arose a new king over Egypt, 
who knew not Joseph. And he said unto his people: 
4 Behold, the people of the children of Israel are too 
many and too mighty for us; come, let us deal wisely 


היא שעמדה לאבותינו ולנו. שלא 

tit v ־ ד• ••ו : rr 

אחד בלבד עמד עלינו לכלותינו. 

T * T T : • TV ••ן • — ••ן 

אלא שבכל דור ודור עומדים 

• : ^ T T : V TV 

עלינו לכלותינו. והקדוש ברוך 

I T IT“: I•• “ J I*• T 

הוא מצילנו מידם: 

־ • •• TT * I 

ארמי אבד אבי וירד מצרימה ויגר שם במתי 

ד “ • ״ VI*— • T • : ־ 1 : T TIT“ T • : " 

מעט. כל־הנפש לבית־ יעקב הבאה מצרימה 

T T S ־ V IV : ־ 1 ר־ I ו “ T : I- : • T IT 

שבעים. ויוסף היה במצרים. הוא השליט על 

•:* ?•• IT:*; TT • ־ ־ • ־־ 

הארץ. ויושב יוסף את־אביו ואת־אחיו ויתד להם 

I V IT T - •• •״ V T I •• • - TV V : • T V I 

אחזה כאשר צוה פרעה. וישב ישראל בארץ 

ד־ \ 1 VIV : •• T : • VI•— . - T • tv —. 1 “ T 

גשו. ויהי־שם לגוי גדול עצום ורב. 

TT T T : T • :1“ I VI 

ויקם מלך־חדש על־מצרים אשר לא־ידע את־ 

“ TIT ו V IV ו T T ־ • : IT • ן- T V ־ v r 

יוסף. ויאמר אל־עמו הנה עם בני ישראל רב 

*• v VI“ I ־ • •• ־־ : •* * : T ~ ” 

ועצום ממנו. הבה נתחכמה לו פן־ירבה והיה 

T T J V : • I V CT:“:r TIT IV • T: 

with them, lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that 
when there befalleth us any war, they also join them- 
selves unto our enemies, and fight against us, and get 
them up out of the land’. Therefore they set over 
them taskmasters to afflict them with burdens. And 
they built for Pharaoh store-cities, Pithom and 
Raamses. But the more the Egyptians afflicted them, 
the more the Israelites multiplied and the more they 
spread abroad. 

And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted 
us, and laid upon us cruel bondage. And we cried 
unto the Lord, the God of our fathers, and the Lord 
heard our voice and saw our affliction and our toil and 
our oppression. And the Lord brought us forth out 
of Egypt, with a mighty hand and with an outstretched 
arm and with great terror and with signs and with 
wonders. He sent before us Moses and Aaron and 
Miriam. And He brought forth His people with joy, 
His chosen ones with singing. And He guided them 
in the wilderness, as a shepherd his flock. 

Therefore He commanded us to observe the Passover 
in its season, from year to year, that His law shall 
be in our mouths, and that we shall declare His might 
unto our children, His salvation to all generations. 

All read in unison: 

Who is like unto Thee, O Lord, among the mighty? 
Who is like unto Thee, glorious in holiness, 
Fearful in praises, doing wonders? 

The Lord shall reign for ever and ever. 


כי־תקראנה מלחמה ונוסח גם־הוא על־שנאינו 

T t : • T IVI ; • r : ״ ־־ : •• 1 

ונלחם־בנו ועלה מן־הארץ. וישימו עליו שרי 

J , : ־ I V IT T I • T T : IT ־ T T T I* T •״ 

מסים למען ענתו בסבלתם ויבן ערי מסכנות 

• • :־־ 1 ־ 1 ־ T : • S "״ T I V I ״• • : : 

לפרעה את־פתם ואת־רעמסס. וכאשר יענו את 1 

ן - : v : • v r ־ 1 ־ : •• 1 : ־ 1 ד- 1v : - 

כן ירבה וכן יפרץ. 

I :•I••: v : • I "• 

וירעו אתנו המצרים ויענונו ויתנו עלינו עבדה 

- T ״ IT r r ־ • : • ־*; ־ * ־־• : I•• T ד־ T 

קשה. ונצעק אל־יי אלהי אבותינו וישמע יי את־ 

ז vs t i v I - : • - t I "• ד- •• 1 ■י : ־־ r ג v T 

קלנו וירא את־ענינו ואת־עמלנו ואת־לחצנו. 

| ••ן ■■ t a •• ץ■ •••ן • M M • ץ ••ן • M ■■ן * V ••ן 

ויוציאנו יי ממצרים ביד חזקה ובזרע נטויה 

“ 1 • " T : I • • : ־ 1 • : T ד- I : • I T T ־ : T 

ובמרא גדל ובדתות ובמפתים. וישלח לפנינו את 

1• : I J : T T S ־ * S ־ : V I" T 

משה אהרן ומרים. ויוצא עמו בששון ברנה את¬ 

¬ ד- 1 י : T • •יי : I T : ״ V T 

בחיריו. וינהגם במדבר כרעה עדרו. 

T • I ־ :- I ••ו ־ ♦ ! V V : T : 

ויצונו לעשות את־הפסח לזכרה במועדו מימים 

• : - •יו - 1 2 - 1:1 T • : - IV - V I ד- 1 ״ T • 

ימימה. למען תהיה תורתו בפינו ולמען נגיד 

▼ • 1 I- : T ־ T V : • I : •ו : ־ 1 - I - • 

גבורתו לבנינו. ישועתו לדור ודור. 

All read in unison: 

מי־כמכה באלם יי מי כמכה נאדר בקדש 

־־ - 1 v I 

T : 

נורא תהלת עשה־פלא. יי ימלך לעלם ועד. 

V T T r J I : * T : V IV •• *I • : T 



The company repeats the refrain “ Dayenu ” which is equiv- 
alent to “It would have satisfied us”. 

How manifold are the favors which God has con- 
ferred upon us! 

AD HE brought us out of Egypt, and not 
divided the sea for us, Dayenu E 

AD HE divided the sea, and not permitted 
us to cross on dry land, DayenuE 

AD HE permitted us to cross the sea on 
dry land, and not sustained 11 s for forty 
years in the desert, Dayenu i 

AD HE sustained us for forty years in the 
desert, and not fed us with manna, 

Dayenu i 


כמה מעלות טובות למקום עלינו: 

־ I" T ד־ I ־ T I T ••ן 

לו הוציאנו ממצרים. 


ולא קרע לנו את הים. 

: V IT ^ -1 T ־ T 

לו קרע לנו את הים. 

v rr * -It ־ t 

ולא העבירנו בתוכו בחרבה 

IT T T: IV : IT • VS IV S 

לו העבירנו בתוכו בחרבה. 


ולא ספק צרכנו במדבר ארבעים 

I” S T 


T T 


ו ספק צרכנו במדבר ארבעים שנה 

» | ץ ; ♦•ן ** • ; TT • t 5 * t 

3U* ולא האכילנו את־המן דינו: 

*“—■ - - : r• “ I T “ V IT • VS IV 


AD HE fed us with manna, and not or- 
dained the Sabbath, Dayenu! 

AD HE ordained the Sabbath, and not 
brought us to Mount Sinai. Dayenul 

AD HE brought us to Mount Sinai, and not 
given us the Torah. Dayenul 

AD HE given us the Torah, and not led us 
into the Land of Israel, Dayenu! 

AD HE led us into the Land of Israel, and 
not built for us the Temple, Dayenu! 

AD HE built for us the Temple, and not 
sent us prophets of truth, Dayenu! 

AD HE sent us prophets of truth, and not 
made us a holy people, Dayenul 


|לו האכילנו את־המן. 

It- v it vs 1 v 1 

ולא נתן לנו את־השבת. 

: ד ־־ v it I - - ד 

לו נתן לנו את־השבת. 

T ־ IT I ־ ־ T 

ולא קרבנו לפני הר סיני 

: “ IT I I • : " ־ ♦ ־ 

לו קרבנו לפני הר סיני. 

״״ IT : I ״ ; ״• - ־ 

ולא נתן לנו את־התורה 

5 T ־ V IT I ־ T 

dn £' לו נתן לנו את־התודה. 

T IT I “ T 

ולא הכניסנו לארץ ישראל 

” T : • I V IV : IT * : • : 

I לו שלח אלינו נביאי האמת. 

T j - ״• •• IV VI IT : I 

וליא שמנו ליעם קדוש. 


• ♦ 

All read in unison: 

How much more then are we to be grateful unto the 
Lord for the manifold favors which He has bestowed 
upon us! He brought us out of Egypt, divided the 
Red Sea for us, permitted us to cross on dry land, 
sustained us for forty years in the desert, fed us with 
manna, ordained the Sabbath, brought us to Mount 
Sinai, gave us the Torah, led us into the Land of 
Israel, built for us the Temple, sent unto us prophets 
of truth, and made us a holy people to perfect the 
world under the kingdom of the Almighty, in truth 
*md in righteousness. 

All read in unison: 

על אחת כמה וכמה טובה כפולה ומכפלת 

־ ־ ־ IV V : T : T T - J T ¥ 

למהום עלינו. שהוציאנו ממצרים. וקרע לנו את 

- S • * IT V I” T T ־ 1 • : V IT ~ ■It 

הים. והעבירנו בתוכו בחרבה. וספק צרכנו 

־ I" : T I •• • : IT T T: •V : IT * VI IV I T 

במדבר ארבעים שנה. והאכילנו את־המן. ונתן 

־ • : t ־ : v it • vi 1v s t t • t ־ t : It ־ I 

לנו את־השבת. וקרבנו לפני הר סיני. ונתן לנו 

V IT ־ ־ IT I I •* I T • ו " ־ * ־ TI ־ IT I 

את־התורה. והכניסנו לארץ ישראל. ובנה לנו 

IT T IT ~ T I * I V IV : IT * I * I T 

את־בית הבחירה. ושלח אלינו נביאי האמת. 

־ T I T • S ־ •• ” IV VI IT •• • I I 

ושמנו לעם קדוש לתקן עולם במלכות שדי באמת 

: it t : ־ It ! ־- s t r II ־ : ־ ־ 1v vi •v 


It t • • 



®fje Passtober 

Should enemies again assail us, the remembrance of 
the exodus of our fathers from Egypt will never fail 
to inspire us with new courage, and the symbols of 
this festival will help to strengthen our faith in God, 
who redeems the oppressed. 

Therefore, Rabban Gamaliel, a noted sage, declared: 
” Whoever does not well consider the meaning of these 
three symbols: Pesah, Matzo and Moror, has not 
truly celebrated this Festival”. 


One of the company asks: 

What is the meaning of Pesah? 

The leader lifts up the roasted shank-bone and answers: 

Pesah means the paschal lamb, and is sym- 
bolized by this shank-bone. It was eaten by our 
fathers while the Temple was in existence, as a me- 
morial of God’s favors, as it is said: ”It is the 
sacrifice of the Lord’s passover, for that He pass- 
ed over the houses of the children of Israel in 
Egypt, when He smote the Egyptians and delivered 
our houses”. As God in the ancient ”Watch-Night” 
passed over and spared the houses of Israel, so did He 
save us in all kinds of distress, and so may He always 
shield the afflicted, and for ever remove every trace 
of bondage from among the children of man. 


רבן גמליאל היה אומר. כל־שלא אמר שלשה 

- It ־:••• T V T ” T T ־ : T 

דברים אלו בפסח לא יצא ידי חובתו. ואלו הן. 

• •ך• ••ן ״ jy •״ H |** • T •• • T T י 

פסח. מצה. ומרור: 

IY ־ ־ T T 

One of the company asks: 

פסח שהיו אבותינו אכלין בזמן שבית המקדש 

t I : • ״ יי * v ז ■ : • I • ן r* ד tv ־ ! v 

. היה קים על־שום מה 

T ־ T I ־ T T 

The leader lifts up the roasted shank-bone and answers: 

פסח שהיו אבותינו אכלין בזמן שבית 

IV ־ v I - : • I ♦ S •• TV “ 

המקדש היה קים על־שום שפסח הקדוש 

־ • : TT TI ־ TI ־ IT V ־ - It 

ברוך הוא על בתי אבותינו במצרים. שנאמר. 

It ־ v: IV V • it : • : I” ** T ־ 1 

ואמרתם זבח פסח הוא ליי אשר פסח על־בתי 

־• T - * R V —. T 1 ־ ־ IT “IV IV : ־ 11 ־ ־ 

בני ישראל במצרים. וכשם שגאל הקדוש ברוך 

I T 11 ■ -TV •• : • IT : • : •• T : • : 

הוא את־אבותינו ממצרים בחפזון. כן יגן עלינו 

v ן־ •• 1 : • t I - T I *• I t -ן 

בכל־יום תמיד. גנון והציל פסוח והמליט: 

* T ••*IT * T T ן“ •* I * 


One of the company asks: 
What is the meaning of Matzo? 

The leader lifts up the Matzo and answers: 

Matzo, called the bread of affliction, 
was the hasty provision that our fathers made 
for their journey, as it is said: “And they baked 
unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought 
out of Egypt. There was not sufficient time 
to leaven it, for they were driven out of Egypt and 
could not tarry, neither had they prepared for them- 
selves any provisions.” The bread which of necessity 
they baked unleavened, thus became a symbol of di- 
vine help. 


One of the company asks: 
And what is the meaning of moror? 

The leader lifts up the bitter herbs and answers: 

Moror means bitter herb. We eat it 
in order to recall that the lives of our ancestors 
were embittered by the Egyptians, as we read: ‘And 
they made their lives bitter with hard labor in mortar 
and bricks and in all manner of field labor. Whatever 
task was imposed upon them, was executed with the 
utmost rigor.” As we eat it in the midst of the fes- 
tivities of this night, we rejoice in the heroic spirit 
which trials developed in our people. Instead of be- 
coming embittered by them, they were sustained and 


One of the company asks: 

מצה זו שאנו אכלין על־שום מה. 

“ S IT V T • < ־ T 

The leader lifts up the Matzo and answers: 

מצה זו שאנו אכלין על שם שלא הספיק 

“ IT V T : ״ V •• - I • " ו 

בצקם של אבותינו להחמיץ. עד שנגלה עליהם 

: •• v It ד- ••ן : - 1 ד־ •ו T : • v - I ד ״״ v 

מלך מלכי המלכים הקדוש ברוך־ הוא וגאלם. 

I V IV ־ : •• ־ : T T : I T IT” • T 

שנאמר. ויאפו־את־הבצק אשר הוציאו ממצרים 

1 - vnv v ־ v ־ I •• t ד־ v •ו • • : ־ 1 • 

עגת מצות כי לא חמץ כי־גרשו ממצרים ולא 

.־ ־ • ■ך •• 1 :1 • I ; 

יכלו להתמהמה וגם־צדה ליא־עשו להם: 

J T : • : ־ : ••! - : * •* T T T ד 

One of the company asks: 

מרור זה שאנו אכלין על־שום מה. 

IT V V T : ״ I ״ T 

-' The leader lifts up the Moror and answers 

מרור זה שאנו אכלין על־שום שמררו המצרים 

• ; • - : •• V ״ I • : IT V V T 

את חיי אבותינו במצרים. שנאמר. וימררו את 

V ן :־ י T : - 1- v: IV V • IT : ‘ : 1“ ־ •• :־ V 

חייהם בעבדה קשה בחמר ובלבנים ובכל עבדה 

Tv: T : ..... VI: T I T IT ■ ־ •• ... ־ 1 ד 

בשדה את כל־עבדתם אשר־עבדו בהם בפרך: 

I V IT : V T :it v IT T I ד־ T •• V T ־ 

®&e fflatcfj nigJjt of tfte Eternal 

N EVERY generation, each Jew should 
regard himself as though he too were 
brought out of Egypt. Not our fathers 
alone, but us also, did the Holy 
One redeem; for not alone in Egypt 
but in many other lands, have we 
groaned under the burden of affliction 
and suffered as victims of malice, ignorance and fa- 
naticism. This very night which we, a happy gener- 
ation, celebrate so calmly and safely and joyfully in our 
habitations was often turned into a night of anxiety 
and of suffering for our people in former times. Cruel 
mobs were ready to rush upon them and to destroy 
their homes and the fruit of their labors. But un- 
dauntedly they clung to their faith in the ultimate 
triumph of right and of freedom. Champions of God, 
they marched from one Egypt into another—driven 
in haste, their property a prey to the rapacious foe, 
with their bundles on their shoulders, and God in their 

Because God, “the Guardian of Israel, who sleepeth 
not nor slumbereth” revealed Himself on that watch- 
night in egvpt and in all dark periods of our 
past, as the Redeemer of the enslaved, we keep this 
dedicated to God our redeemer. 


כל־דור ודור חיב אדם לראות את־ 

V : • T T T - T T 

עצמו כאלו הוא יצא ממצרים. 

־ ; ! * IT : • • T T • 

שנאמר והגדת לבנה ביום ההוא 

■ “• I : • • T : - • • 1“ VS IV V 

לאמר בעבור זה עשה יי לי בצאתי 

*• “ 1 ד־ T 2 T T V S • : ״• * 

ממצרים: לא את־ אבותינו בלבד גאל הקדוש 

• * : V • IT ד- "| • : T T ־ ־־ IT 

ברוך הוא. אלא אף אותנו נאל עמהם. שנאמר 

T V I T ־ VS IV V V T * - T IT I ־ 1 

ואותנו הוציא משם למען הביא אותנו לתת לנו 

: T • * IT : ־ 1 ־ IT V IT IT * T I 

את־הארץ אשר נשבע לאבותינו: 

1“ -5 r r - ; • ... _J I V IT T V 

All read in unison: 

לפי כך אנחנו חיבים להודות להלל לשבח לפאר 

:• IT :--: ־ T ־ : : - •• . .ך.. 

ולרומם למי שהוציא את־אבתינו ואתנו מעבדות 

• • •» I•* • I•• V* •• • •• • • •• • 

• I * • I • • • • • 

לחרות. מיגון לשמחה. ומאבל ליום טוב. 

: *• • T ו : • : VI•••• T : 

ומאפלה לאור גדול. ומשעבוד לגאלה. ונאמר 

•יו T \ I • : • * T : IT •• t : - 

לפניו הללויה: 

: T T ־ 1 : T 


While enjoyftig ttie liberty of this land, let us strive 
to make secure also our spiritual freedom, that, as the 
delivered, we may become the deliverer, carrying out 
Israel’s historic task of being the messenger of religion 
unto all mankind. 

All read in unison: 

So it is our duty to thank, praise and glorify 
God, who brought us and our forefathers from slavery 
unto freedom, from sorrow unto joy, from mourning 
unto festive gladness, from darkness unto light. Let 
us therefore proclaim His praise. 







Praise, O ye servants of the Lord, 
Praise the name of the Lord. 


Blessed be the name of the Lord 
From this time forth and for ever. 


From the rising of the snn unto the going down thereof 
The Lord’s name is to be praised. 


The Lord is high above all nations, 

His glory is above the heavens. 


Who is like unto the Lord our God, 

That is enthroned on high, 


That looketh down low 
Upon heaven and upon earth? 


Who raiseth up the poor out of the dust, 

And lifteth up the needy out of the dunghill; 


That He may set him with princes, 

Even with the princes of His people. 


Who maketh the barren woman to dwell in her house 
As a joyful mother of children. 





: י• 

הללו עבדי יי הללו את־שם יי: 

• • י• • 1 • • T • •• •• • “ T 

• • • I • * * 

יהי שם יי מברך מעתה ועד־עולם: 

s ־ •• 1•• It : ts ־ t r - : it 

ממזרח ־שמש עד־מבואו מהלל 

שם יי: 

T : 

רם על־כל־גוים יי על השמים כבודו: 

1 - ד ׳ : T ־ ־ T ־ 1 • : 

מי כיי אלהינו המגביהי לשבת: 

* “ v: T ••ן “ 1 ־ 5 • V IT T P 

המשפילי לראות בשמים ובארץ: 
מקימי מעפר דל מאשפות ירים אביון: 
להושיבי עם־נדיבים עם נדיבי עמו: 

? I ״ • 1 • : • • • ; • *״ ־ 

מושיבי עהרת הבית אם־הבנים שמחה 

ן • •| ;— 1“ ■ •• |M • •• ״ T : • T 

*) Psalms CXIII and CXIV may be sung to the music 
on the following pages. 



HEN Israel came forth out of Egypt, 
The house of Jacob from a people of 
strange language; 


Judah became His sanctuary, 

Israel His dominion. 


The sea saw it, and fled; 

The Jordan turned backward. 


The mountains skipped like rams, 

The hills like young sheep. 


What aileth thee, O thou sea, that thou fleest? 

Thou Jordan, that thou turnest backward? 


Ye mountains that ye skip like rams; 

Ye hills, like young sheep? 


Tremble, thou earth, at the presence of the Lord, 
At the presence of the God of Jacob; 


Who turned the rock into a pool of water, 

The flint into a fountain of waters. 


צאת ישראל ממצרים בית יעקב 

• 1 : I” T ׳ * : IT * ״ 

מעם לעז: 

•• ■ •• 

היתה יהודה לקדשו ישראל 

I" T : 1• :IT: T : IT : IT 


־ : T S 

הים ראה וינס הירדן יסב לאחור: 
ההרים רקדו כאילים גבעות כבני־צאן: 
מה־לך הים כי תנוס הירדן תסב לאחור: 
ההרים תרקדו כאילים גבעות כבני־צאן: 
מלפני אדה חולי ארץ מלפני אלוה יעקב: 
ההפכי הצור אגם־מים חלמיש למעינו־מים: 

ו : • 1 

Psalm CXIII 

Traditional Chant 

1 1 ill] | k "" 

mar r־r: 7v n 

ח n • m 



ח ח— wr 

U LLl 

1 1M 

•_ m _ l 

*r V 

1. Ha ־ la 111 ־ 
3.Mimmiz -ra 
5. Mi ka ־ do 
7.M’ - ki ־ mi 
9. Mo - sh 

- r r r—r 

av ־ de a - do - noi.. 

fi she-mesh ad m ־׳ vo 0 ־ . 


noi e 10 ־ - he - nu 

me -0 ־ for. dol. 

i - vi a ־ ke-res hab ba vis 

j_J ״ 

4V ——— y - ־׳ 

•■•1 r}< o 

r UL° 



ha-la ־ lu es shem ado - noi S.Y’hishem a - do • 

m’hul - 101 shem ado - noi 4. Rom al kol go- 

ham - mag־bi hi 10 ־ sho-ves 6. Hamm&sh-pi ־ 

me-ash - pos yo - rim ev - yon 8. L’ho-shi - vi 

em hab-bo ־ nims’me-hoh 10. Ha ־ - la - 


Psalm CXIV 




ho-y-soh Y’hu ־ 
he-ho-rim rok’ - 
he-ho-rim tirk’ < 
ha-ho־f chi hatz• 


n—+ & —^ 


bes Ya - a - kov me ־ am 10 - ez 

hay-yar ־ den yis- sov l’o ־ hor 

hay-yar ־ den tis ־ sov 10 - hor 

mil-lif* - ne e-10 ־ ha Ya־a - kov 




10 ־ na Ya- 









־> -h 


- 00-6 

>-0 - 


J dJ - J ■ 

r e 

o o | 


kiv-ne tzon. 
kiv־ne tzon. 
1-ma-y’no mo-yim. 

doh l’-kod - sho Yis ־ ro ־ el 

du ch ־ e - lim g’vo - os 

du ch ־ e - lim g’vo - os 

tzur a-gam mo-yim h^l ־ 10 ־ mish 








RAISED art Thou, O Lord our God, 
King of the universe, who hast re- 
deemed us and our ancestors from 
Egypt, and hast enabled us to ob- 
serve this night of the Passover, 
the Feast of Unleavened Bread. O 
Lord our God and God of our fathers, 
may we, with Thy help, live to celebrate other feasts 
and holy seasons. May we rejoice in Thy salvation 
and be gladdened by Thy righteousness. Grant de- 
liverance to mankind through Israel, Thy people. 
May Thy will be done through Jacob, Thy chosen 
servant, so that Thy name shall be sanctified in the 
midst of all the earth, and that all peoples be moved 
to worship Thee with one accord. And we shall sing 
new songs of praise unto Thee, for our redemption 
and for the deliverance of our souls. Praised art 
Thou, O God, Redeemer of Israel. 

The cups are filled for the second time. 

All read in unison: 

Boruch atto adonoi elohenu melech ho'olom 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the 
universe, who hast created the fruit of the vine. 

Drink the second cup of wine. 

רוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם. 

I ־ IT ~ IT I V IV I•• V* T : T 

אשר גאלנו וגאל את־ אבותינו 

— T : IT T : V ־ 5 V ־ ” I 

ממצרים. והגיענו הלילה הזה 

• • : - I • : • ׳ IT ־ ־ 1 : T - ... 

לאכל־בו מצה ומרור. כן יי 

I T VS IV ־ T I I " T T 

אליהינו ואליהי אבותינו יגיענו למוערים ולרגלים 

* V •• •• ד- •• 1 ־• ״ו : 1 T : • : r • 

אחרים הבאים לקראתנו לשלום. שמחים 

ן- •• • ־ Tl 2 • • T ״ T 2 I : •• • 

בישועתך. וששים בצךקתך. ונזכה לךאות 
בהגלות זרעך על .ישראל עמך. וחפצך :צלח 
ב:ד יעקב עבךך בחירך. :תקדש שמך בתוך 
כל הארץ. ו:עבדוך עמים שכם אחד. ןנוךה־לך 
שיר חדש על־גאלתנו ועל פדות נפשנו: ברוך אתה 
יי. גאל ישראל: 

•• T 2 * - T T I 

The cups are filled for the second time. 

All read in unison: 

ברוך אתה י: אלהינו מלך העולם בורא פרי 

Drink the second cup of wine. 

מוציא, מצה . 5 

• — 

The upper Matzo is broken and distributed. All then read 
in unison: 

Boruch ATTO ADONOI ELOHENU melech ho'olom 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the 
universe, who bringest forth bread from the earth. 
Boruch atto adonoi elohenu melech ho'olom 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the 
universe, who hast sanctified us through Thy com- 
mandments, and ordained that we should eat unleav- 
ened bread. 

Eat the Matzo. 

כורך, מרור . 6 

Each person receives some bitter herbs and haroses, which 
he places between two pieces of matzo. The leader then reads: 

This was the practice of Hillel, at the time the 
Temple was still in existence. He combined the un- 
leavened bread and the bitter herbs and ate them to- 
gether, to carry out the injunction concerning the 
Passover sacrifice: “With unleavened bread and with 
bitter herbs, they shall eat it.” 

All read in unison: 

Boruch atto adonoi elohenu melech ho‘olom 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the 
universe, who hast sanctified us by Thy commandments, 

and ordained that we should eat bitter herbs. 

Eat the Moror. 


5. מוציא, מצה 

T ־ 

The upper Matzo is broken and distributed. All then read 
in unison: 

ברוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם. המוציא 

I T ־־ VJ T J T ״״ IT ^ it | •• IV I ־ • 

לחם מן־הארץ: 

I V IT T 1 * V IV 

ברוך אתה יי. אלהינו מלך העולם. אשר 

V ■ ד IT r IT | V IV I” VS T : T ־ I T 

: קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על ־אכילת מצה 

T ־ :־ • ־־ ־ IT*: T5•: IT 5 I * 

Eat the Matzo. 

כורר, מרור . 6 


Each person receives some bitter herbs and haroses which he 
places between two pieces of matzo. The leader then reads: 

כן עשה הלל בזמן שבית המקדש היה קים. 

T T • ־ V I •• ״ * : T T T I ״ T I 

היה כורך מצה ומרור ואובל ביחד. לקים מה 

I-: *• : T T — I •• T T ־ , : - I •״ יי 

שנאמר על־מצות ומרורים ייאכלהו: 

ן- VIIV V 

All read in unison: 

ברוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם. אשר קדשנו 

I T ־ VJ 7 : T ••ו IT r IT I v IV דיי•• - ״ IT : I 

במצותיו וצונו על־אכילת מרור: 

Eat the Moror. 



צפון. 8 

Partake of the Aphikomon. 

At the conclusion of the meal, the children are given an 
opportunity to find the Aphikomon. The reader redeems it 
and distributes pieces of it to all present. 

After partaking of the Aphikomon, it is customary to eat 
nothing else. 


Ji. gUter tfjc ideal 


To Thee Above 



—- —1~— 

1. To 


ף zjr t w 

f- 1 f P ר 

1- ^ 



crea - tures gaze, To 
cap - tive band Who 
rec ־ og -nize With 

Thee a - bove all 

didst re-deem the 
God, Thy chil- dren 



— j;•-־ W 

־ cfir t 


2 ׳ • 1 

\ A 

די' - ' 1 ' J , ■ ־.- J - 



5 י 


heavn do praise,Whose 
ty ־ rant’s hand. Their 
pre - cious prize. Thy 

Thee whom earth and 
were en - slaved by 
grate - ful hearts this 


ev ־ er wateh-ful prov ־ i-dence Proves dai ־ ly Thine om• 
cries were heard ,their groans were still’d ,Their yearning hopes at 
peo-ple at this fes - tive time Pro - claim a10 ־ udThy 


our thanks in 

dom dawned on 

will reign for 


ni - po ־ tence, To Thee 
last ful filled, And Free- 
grace sub-lime.The Lord 

1 , \ ־ " > ־$&־ • gJ 


(grace after tfje Jffeal 


ET US say grace. 


Let us bless Him of whose bounty 
we have partaken and through whose 
goodness we live. 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our 
God, King of the universe, who sustainest the world 
with goodness, with grace, and with infinite mercy. 
Thou givest food unto every creature, for Thy mercy 
endureth for ever. 


Through Thy great goodness, food has not failed us. 
May it never fail us at any time, for the sake of Thy 
great name. 


Thou sustainest and dealest graciously with all Thy 


Praised art Thou, O Lord, who givest food unto all. 

All read in unison: 

O God, our Father, sustain and protect us and grant 
us strength to bear our burdens. Let us not, O God, 
become dependent upon men, but let us rather depend 


ביר • 9 


בותי נברח־ לאלהינו שאכלנו משלח 

V * : 1“ T V I ״ •״ • I ״ • T : 


ברוך אלהינו שאכלנו משלו ובטובו 

: V • : 1 ־ T V I•• v: ו T 

: חיינו 


1• t 

ברוך אלהינו שאכלנו משלו ובטובו חיינו: 

T V I•• V: I T ־ 1 1• T : V • S 

ברור אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם. הזן את־ 

t ־־ it ~ it I v 1v r• vi t : t ־ v It 

העולם כלו בטובו בחן בחסד וברחמים. הוא 

IT ־ IT .״ : : •• V IV : I : ־ 1 ד־ • 1 

נתן לחם לכל־בשר. כי לעולם חסדו. ובטובו 

•״ T ^ : • T T T J V IV I ־־ : : 

הגדול תמיד לא־חהר לנו ואל יחסר־לנו מזון 

־ it • t t ־ it : ־ v : ־ It it 

לעולם ועד. בעבור שמו הגדול. כי הוא זן 

: ^ v t t ־ 1 :־ 1 : - It • t 

ומפרנס לכל. ומטיב לכל. ומכין מזון לכל 

: ־ 5 ״• ־ ״ ־ •• • T : I T I 

בריותיו אשר ברא: ברוך אתה יי הזן את־הבל: 

T • S ד* T! T “ I T TT V ־ I T ¥ ־ 

: All read in unison 

אליהינו אבינו. רענו זוננו. פרנסנו וכלכלנו. 

T |•• VI •ן • ••ן ••ן - « • ••ן י ■ • • ••ן 

והרויחנו. והרוח־לנו יי אליהינו מהרה מכל־ 

\ “ : • ••ן ; ■ ; ■ v5 T I T ••ן T • T •* I 

צרותינו. ונא אל־תצריכנו יי אלהינו לא לידי 

T : I*״ 

^ 7 

upon Thy hand, which is ever open and gracious, so 
that we may never be put to shame. 


Our God and God of our fathers, be Thou ever 
mindful of us, as Thou hast been of our fathers, so that 
we may find enlargement, grace, mercy, life and peace 
on this Feast of Unleavened Bread. 

Company: amen 

Remember us this day in kindness. 

Company: amen 

Visit us this day with blessing. 

Company: amen 

Preserve us this day for life. 

Company: amen 

With Thy saving and gracious word have mercy 
upon us and save us, for unto Thee, the compassionate 
and merciful One, our eyes are ever turned, for Thou 
art a gracious and merciful King. 

The All-merciful! May He reign over us for ever! 

Company: amen 

The All-merciful! May He sustain us in honor! 

Company: amen 

May He bless this household and 
May we all find favor in the eyes 

Company: amen 


The All-merciful! 
all assembled here, 
of God and men! 

מתנת בשר ודם ולא לידי הלואתם. כי אם לידך 

- : - T 7 TT . ... ־ : זו T : • • IT T : י 

המלאה הפתוחה הגדושה והרחבה. שלא־נבוש 

“ T ־ 5 T ־ : V IT T S IT : T - 

ולא־נכלם לעולם ועד: 


אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו. יעלה ויבא ויפקד 

1 " v1 •*! ••ו ־ 1 ד־ t • : t : 1v •־ I 

וחכר זכרוננו חברון אבותינו. חברון עמך ישראל 

5 * T •• • ; ••ן : * 5 1 5 “ ” I J * : I ־ : T : * I •• 

משיחך לפניך. לפלטה ולטובה ולחן ולחסד 

: •ן V' IV : I •• : T : T *• J * I IV T : I 

ולרחמים ולחיים ולשלום ביום חג המצות הזה. 

• י ״ • • T • • ■ « ■ • • 

• * • • 

זכרנו יי אלהינו בו לטובה. אמן. 

VS T : I•• : T ״• T T : I ״• I 

ופקדנו בו לברכה. אמן. 

I •• T T T : • |”1 : T 

והושיענו בו לחייט. אמן. 

I •• T • “ : !•••IS 

ובדבר ישועה ורחמים חוס וחננו ורחם עלינו 

• • — : t • —ן •— •ן 5 T ••ן J ■ ״ T ••ן 

והושיענו כי אליך עינינו. כי אל מלך חנון ורחום 

: • ••ן • *״ 1 v ו •• • •• •••ו 1 v ־ ו :• 



הרחמן. הוא ימלוך עלינו לעולם ועד: הרחמן 

I IT “5 1“ T ״ 5 T V T T ^ ; I*• T I ־ 1 I IT *I 

הוא יפרנסנו בכבוד: הרחמן הוא ישלח ברכה 
מרבה בבית הזה ועל־שלחן זה שאכלנו עליו: 

V “ • 1“ “ T \ J ! ־ .' T T : 1“ T V V I V S 

הרחמן הוא יברך [את־אבי מורי בעל הבית הזה 

T ־ 1 :־־ 1“ • • T V I •• T 5 I IT ־ “ “ 1 * “ V 

ואת־אמי מורתי בעלת הבית הזה אותם ואת ביתם 

: T • • v • ־ 1 ד ■ 1 ־ ־ 1 • “ T V 5 T V 

ואת־זרעם ואת־כל אשר להם] אותנו ואת־כל־אשר 

V T V -X 



Fear ye the Lord, ye His holy ones, for there is no 
want to them that fear Him. 


The young lions do lack and suffer hunger, but they 
that seek the Lord shall not lack any good thing. 


O give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good, for 
His mercy endureth for ever. 


Thou openest Thy hand and satisfiest every living 
thing with favor. 


Blessed is the man that trusteth in the Lord; the 
Lord shall be unto him for a help. 


The Lord will give strength unto His people; 

The Lord will bless His people with peace. 

The cups are filled for the third time. 

All read in unison: 

Boruch atto adonoi elohenu melech ho‘olom 


Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the 
universe, who createst the fruit of the vine. 

Drink the third cup of wine. 

לנו. ונשא ברכה מאת יי וצדקה מאליהי ישענו: 
ונמצא־חן ושכל טוב בעיני אלהים ואדם: 


יראו את יי קרשיו כי אין מחסור ליראיו: 


: כפירים רשו ורעבו ודרשי יי לא־יחסרו כל־טוב 

T : J ■ T: ״ • : : l ״״ TS T • • • 


הודו ליי כי־טוב כי לעולם חסדה 

J ־ T ^ : ״ ״ T " 


פותח את ירד ומשביע לכל־חי רצון: 

••ן ־ 1• : - I IV T V ־ : T ־ I T 


ברוך הגבר אשר יבטח ביי והיה יי מבטחו: 


יי עז לעמו יתן יי יברך את־עמו בשלום: 

, % r : “ ־ •״ T : T . I •״ V I ״ ־ T 

The cups are filled for the third time. 
All read in unison: 

Drink the third cup of wine. 




PRAISE the Lord, all ye nations; 


Laud Him, all ye peoples. 


For His mercy is great toward us; 


And the truth of the Lord endureth 

forever. Hallelujah! 


psalm cxvm: 1-4 
Leader : 

O give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good, 


For His mercy endureth for ever. 


So let Israel now say, 


For His mercy endureth for ever. 


So let the house of Aaron now say, 


For His mercy endureth for ever. 


So let them now that fear the Lord say, 


For His mercy endureth for ever. 




ללו את־יי כל־גוים שבחוהו כל¬ 

: v I :דד • ־ : • t 

האמים: כי גבר עלינו חסדו ואמת 

T |• \ IT ־ T ••ו ־ : V VI IV • 

יי לעולם. הללויה: 

T ^ ; t : ־ 1 ! IT 



כי לעולם חסדו: 

הודו ליי כי־טוב 

־־ T • 

כי לעולם חסד 1 : 

יאמר־נא ישראל 

1 ־ T : * IT "• 

כי לעולם חסדו: 

יאמררנא בית־אהרן 

1 1 IT •* ־־ 1 1-5 1 

כי לעולם חסדו: 

: ^ T ־ J 

יאמררנא יראי יי 

T! *• S * IT : • 

Psalm CXVII and CXVIII may be sung to the music on the 

following pages. 

Psalm CXYI1 

First Tune 




Psalm CXVII 

Second Tune 

shab - b’ ־ hu - hu kol ho - um - mim 

mes ado ־ no'i 1’ - o - lom Ha־l’lu ־ yoh. 


Hodu Ladonoi 




ן I ■jJt 




zg ... 

-S J ״ 

Yom’- ru - 




=F : 

a - ha-ron 


ki 1 ־ ’- 


1 ^ - g— 

— 51 >—&■־־ 


g : --*y= 

_ 2 >-,—. -. ■ 1 

5 ידי Ir r ♦־ f 

J j 

i> - 







מ=ף= : 

ki - 



1:g}-.:J ־ 

ki l’o 


- 10m 


/d ־* ^־ 

has - 


־ -g : I 


: =± 



r 1 




/ ^•־.׳j> fl^ — 





-מ־־ ־ 








r J 


, ן 

ץ ן 

״ ל ׳׳ L 

> ־׳- 


1 ן 



\ W 


/ ^ 

10 ־ 0 


m has 

^ _^^ -1 

־ do.... Ho-du la-do ■noi 


r 17 

. ר 



< ל { 1 

- 5 


: f <* 




5 . . .35 



X !1 9 9 


9• f 

£־ ׳ 5 ) 

r" h"?" 


9 t 

A A 

r r 

<■ ־ 1 


• - 

י 7 ׳ 




J • י 

י 7 • 

׳׳ 7 


fj 1 


4 » 

ft A 

׳־ ׳־ / ' ־׳- v 



UT OF distress I called upon the Lord; 
He answered me with great enlarge- 


The Lord is for me; I will not fear; 
what can man do unto me? 


It is better to take refuge in the Lord 
than to trust in man. 


It is better to take refuge in the Lord than to trust 
in princes. 


The Lord is my strength and song; and He is be- 
come my salvation. 


The voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the tents 
of the righteous. 


ן־המצר קראתי יה ענני 

י ־ " I ־ IT T T • IT' T • 

במרחב יה: 

״ T T S V 

יי לי לא אירא מה־יעשה 

: T • • T ־־ - IV -S1 


T T 

יי לי בעזרי ואני אראה בשנאי: 

T1 • : • * דו - 1 ד־ ־ 1 it : 1 : v s v 

טוב לחסות ביי מבמה באדם: 

T T T 

טוב לחסות ביי מבמה בנדיבים: 

r ד 1 ־ 1:• T • • 

כל־נוים סבבוני בשם יי בי אמילם: 

T : •*: *IT: * T • :— • י• 

סבוני גם סבבוני בשם יי כי אמילם: 

“ | • - : T : : *IT • :־־ • “ 

סבוני כדברים דעכו כאש קוצים בשם יי כי 

■“ I * :• *I •“! :•* י• •*• י T • 


דחה דחיתני לנפל ויי עזרני: 

T : • ־ 1 * • : ־ ITT T • 


The right hand of the Lord doeth valiantly; the 
right hand of the Lord is exalted. 


I shall not die but live, and declare the works of 
the Lord. 


The Lord hath chastened me sore; but He hath not 
given me over unto death. 


Open to me the gates of righteousness; I will enter 
into them; I will give thanks unto the Lord. 


This is the gate of the Lord; the righteous shall ter 
into it. 


I will give thanks unto Thee, for Thou hast answered 
me, and art become my salvation. 


The stone which the builders rejected is become the 
chief corner-stone. 


This is the Lord’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes. 


This is the day which the Lord hath made; we will 
rejoice and be glad in it. 


We beseech Thee, O Lord, save now! We beseech 
Thee, O Lord, make us now to prosper! 


Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord; 


עזי וזמרת יה ויהי־לי לישועה: 

T T : * X • T ־ : ״ • * IT I 

קול רנה וישועה באהלי צדיקים ימין יי עשה 

1“ T! IT : IT 1• T • I ־ * ׳ T : I • I I ו ^ T 


• IT 

ימין יי רוממה ימין יי עשה חיל: 
לא־אמות כי־אחיה ואספר מעשי יה: 

V 5 IV T ־ 1 :־־ ־ *״ I" I :־ ״* IT 

יסר יסרני יה ולמות לא נתנני: 

״ 2 - I ״ 2 T ־ IT T 2 V IT ״ 

פתחו־לי שערי־צדק אבא־בם אודה יה: 

״ 2 ״ " 2 I - •״ IT V T IT I V IV 

זה־השער ליי צדיקים יבאו בה 

“ ־ 1 ־ ־ T ־ • ״ IT I 

אודך בי עניתני ותהי־לי לישועה: 
אבן מאסו הבונים היתה לראש פנה: 
מאת יי היתה *את היא נפלאת בעינינו: 

״ " : T : • • I IT 5 IT T 

*זה־היום עשה יי נגילה ונשמחה בו: 

T I* T T : 

אנא יי הושיעה נא: 

T T 1• T S T IT 

אנא יי הושיעה נא: 

T T I* T 2 T IT 

אנא יי הצליחה נא: 

T : T IT ־ : * T T I 

אנא יי הצליחה נא: 

T : T IT ־ : * T T I 

ברוך הבא בשם יי ברכנוכם מבית יי: 

T י ״ 2 T ״ ן ץ ••ן ■ ; ץן • •• 2 T 

*) These verses may be sung to the music on the following 

. pages 

7 3 


We bless you out of the house of the Lord. 


Thou art my God, and I will give thanks unto Thee; 


Thou art my God, I will exalt Thee. 


O give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good, 


For His mercy endureth for ever. 

אל יי ויאר לנו אסרדחג בעבתים עד־קרנות 

TS ־ IT %* IT • : ־ ־ 1 «־ •| •• -י: 


“ • : ••ו¬ 

אלי אתה ואודך אליהי ארוממך: 
הודו ליי בי־טוב כי לעולם חסדו: 

־ T ^ . . • T ־ : 

Zeh Hayom 


Ono Adonoy 


Hodu Ladonoi 


נרצה . 11 

T 5 * 

Stye Jfittal Jgenebiction 

The cups are filled for the fourth time. 

The leader lifts the cup of wine and reads: 

HE FESTIVE service is completed. 
With songs of praise, we have lifted up 
the cups symbolizing the divine 
promises of salvation, and have called 
upon the name of God. As we *offer 
the benediction over the fourth cup, 
let us again lift our souls to God in 
faith and in hope. May He who broke Pharaoh’s yoke 
for ever shatter all fetters of oppression, and hasten 
the day when swords shall, at last, be broken and wars 
ended. Soon may He cause the glad tidings of re- 
demption to be heard in all lands, so that mankind — 
freed from violence and from wrong, and united in an 
eternal covenant of brotherhood — may celebrate the 
universal Passover in the name of our God of freedom. 

All read in unison: 

May God bless the whole house of Israel with free- 
dom, and keep us safe from danger everywhere. Amen. 

7 « 

May God cause the light of His countenance to shine 
upon all men, and dispel the darkness of ignorance 
and of prejudice. May He be gracious unto us. 


May God lift up His countenance upon our country 
and render it a true home of liberty and a bulwark 
of justice. And may He grant peace unto us and unto 
all mankind. Amen. 

ברוך אתה יי אליהינו מלך העולם ס־רא פרי הגפן: 

I T ־ IT ^ IT I V KV r• VI Ti T •• ! • ־ I V IT 

Boruch atto adonoi elohenu melech ho'olom 


Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the 
universe, who createst the fruit of the vine. 

Drink the fourth cup of wine. 



Traditional “Addit Hu 

God of Might 

CHORUS. Maestoso 

1. God of might,God of right,Thee we give all glo ־ py; 
2• Now as erst,when Thou first Mad’st the proc־la - ma ־ tion, 
3. Bewithall who in thrall ־ To their tasks are driv - en; 

'Thine all praise in these days As in a ־ ges hoar-y, 

Warning loud ev־’ry proud, Ev ־’ry ty ־ rant na-tion, 
By Thy power speed the hour When their chains are riv ־ enj 

€) ד in _ ו _ _ 1 _ ?ז _ ב _ י _j_ ״ i. ״ _ 

'When we hear, year by year, Free-dom’s wondrous sto ־ ry. 
We Thy fame still proclaim, Bowd in ־ a - do - ra - t ion. 





- —* 





J. ״. 

^ • r 









Addir Hu 


CHORUS. Maestoso 

1. Addir hu, addir hu.yivneh ve 80 ־ b’־ ko- rov f 
3. Bohur hu, godol hu, yohid hu, (Refrain) 
3.Tzaddikhu, kodoshhu, rahumhu, (Refrain) 




* r r Cfig . r r 

bim־he־roh,_ bim-he-roh b’- yo-me-nu b’ ־ ko - rov, 

el b’־ ne, el b’-ne, b’ne ves־cho b’ ־ ko ־ rov. 


Our Souls We Raise In Fervent Praise. 

CHORUS. Andante con 7noto Traditional Ki Lo Noeh 

־כג - r7\ 




Our souls we raise in fer - vent praise. 



ף/ < 

— • 

•י־. a ׳ 



—י — 5 ־ - 3 - i 

2 A 2 



m־• -(•- 

״ • 7 * 9 


י.? ■־* 

1. Lo! glo-rious is the reign, Thy law and loye sus-tain,Earth 

2. Es ־ tablishedis Thy throne,Thou rul-est, one, a - lone, The 
3 ״ . Lo! boundless is Thy power, Our Rock and sheltring towr!Thy 

eeh- oes Heavens re-frain: 

na-tions all in-tone! To Thee, 0 to Thee, To 
grace on Is - rael shower, 





Ki Lo Noeh 



a iMa&rtgal of J 2 umber£ 

The leader asks the questions. The whole company re- 
sponds, each reading as fast as possible, in the effort to finish 
the answer first. 

Who knows One? 

I know One: One is the God of the World. 

Who knows Two? 

I know Two: Two Tables of the Covenant. One 
God of the World. 

Who knows Three? 

I know Three: Three Patriarchs; Two Tables of 
the Covenant; One God of the World. 

Who knows Four? 

I know Four: Four Mothers of Israel; Three Pa- 
triarchs; Two Tables of the Covenant; One God of the 

rv» ■a * ־ yr\»*r 

10 ״ v• Kn»m ׳> 9n.n 

נדחרחדו* ־•••ד••* ורוע 
מוי״יע״ן״יזיו 1 סינו־נ 
®זרחו 3 


1 'niiiy'iK כוח *• ■•»n» 
יזידדו-גיס•־! « 0 ו*«ונוי 
ס • כ ן־*ביי «x ׳ j ״ ra 
a כ״ב •xr י׳ייוו-ע־יו 
ונ 0 «ו״ל ^ *j ״ i ״ n 3 
3 לן״ל״ו אלד־כ־־כ ® 
ra-rfl-a ״ ! r*x ולי 
1 ry ׳ j* 1 y• *j-ifo'j 

0 ־ 7 נו* rrx ניחייל׳® 

כ-ד׳נוח••׳ דיס•! «\י*דוב״דו 
0 ■ o .vi!***a ־ c ס"ס״ם 
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ן•• VI 


1“ T 

אחד מי יודע? 

••• t • ••ו¬ 

אחד אני יודע. 

T V !־ * " I ־ 



שנים מי יודע? 

: - 1 • • •• 1 - 

שנים אני יודע. 

: •|* :— * ** I * : •• .״ ־ I ״ TV 

אלהינו שבשמים ובארץ: 

I- T - V I•• VI ״ V IT T ז 

שלשה מי יודע? 

: T * ••ו¬ 

שלשה אני יודע: שלשה אבות. שני לחות 

: I*• • —: t ״ 5 J T T •• .* 

הברית. אחד אליהינו שבשמים ובארץ: 

״ V IT T * I- T - V I•• VS TV * J י 

שני לחות הברית. אחד 

ארבע מי יודע? 

־ 5 ־ r * "! ־ 

ארבע אני יודע. 

־ : ־־ r :- • ••! יי 

או־בע אמהות. 


אבות. שני לחות הברית. אחד אלהינו שבשמים 

V I•• VJ TV • : * •• •• S T ־ IT • 



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תור• *־*ל כסעראיס 

Who knows Five? 

I know Five: Five Books of Moses; Four Mothers 
of Israel; Three Patriarchs; Two Tables of the Cov- 
enant; One God of the World. 

Who knows Six? 

I know Six: Six Days of Creation; Five Books of 
Moses; Four Mothers of Israel; Three Patriarchs; Two 
Tables of the Covenant; One God of the World. 

Who knows Seven? 

I know Seven: Seven Days of the Week; Six Days 
of Creation; Five Books of Moses; Four Mothers of 
Israel; Three Patriarchs; Two Tables of the Covenant; 
One God of the World. 

Who knows Eight? 

I know Eight: Eight Lights of Hanukkah; Seven 
Days of the Week; Six Days of Creation; Five Books 
of Moses; Four Mothers of Israel; Three Patriarchs; 
Two Tables of the Covenant; One God of the World. 

Who knows Nine? 

I know Nine: Nine Festivals*; Eight Lights of 

* The nine Jewish festivals are: 1. Pesah (Passover), 
2. Shabuoth (Feast of Weeks, or Pentecost) 3. Rosh Hashanah 
(New Year) 4. Yom Kippur (Fay of Atonement) 5. Succoth 
(Feast of Tabernacles) 6. Sh’mini Atzereth (Eighth Day of 
Solemn Assembly) 7. Simhath Torah (Rejoicing in the Law), 
8. Uanukkah (Feast of Dedication or Feast of Lights) 9. Purim 
(Feast of Lots). 

חמשה מי יודע? 

ד־ • t • ••ו¬ 

חמשה אני יודע. חמשה חמשי תורה. ארבע 

5 — * T :— • ••ן- :— * r - • — T ••:*. T 

אמהות. שלשה אבות. שני לחות הברית. 

* T T • T :•* .״ * I • 

אחד אלהינו שבשמים ובארץ: 

V I" V: T V ־ T ־ 1 * I V IT T 

ששה מי יודע? 

* t • ••ו¬ 

ששה אני יודע. ששה סדרי משנה. חמשה 

• I- • T - ״ 5 T S • •* : • T ־ • T 

חמשי תורה. ארבע אמהות. שלשה אבות. 

•״:•• T ־ : ־ T T l T * r 

שני לחות הברית. אחר אלהינו שבשמים 

: •־ .־ ־ : ׳ V I" %•: TV ־ T -ו • 



שבעה מי יודע? 

• : ד • ••ו¬ 

שבעה אני יודע. שבעה ימי שבתא. ששה 

* t J :— • ••| יי *• T • TJ— **• T 

סדרי משנה. חמשה חמשי תורה. ארבע 

• T • • * • T » • 

אמהות. שלשה אבות. שני לחות הברית. 

• TTS T :•••״ 

אחד אלהינו שבשמים ובארץ: 

V I” V: T V ־ T ־ I V IT T • I 

שמונה מי יודע? 

: ד • ••ו¬ 

שמונה אני יודע. שמונה ימי חנכה. שבעה 

: T .— י - I ״ : T 5 • T \ “» “ ! T 

ימי שבתא. ששה סדרי משנה. חמשה חמשי 

5 ״ — T * T J ״ : ״• • : 5 \ T • -1 T *• 

תורה. ארבע אמהות. שלשה אבות. שני לחות 

T T : T • ~ “ S “ T :״״• 

הברית. אחד אלהינו שבשמים ובארץ: 

־ V |" VS TV • S ־ I V IT T • I- T 

תשעה מי יודע? 

• : t • ••ו¬ 

תשעה אני יודע. תשעה זמני שמחה. שמונה 

* : ^ • •*״ י* ♦ ג T X T : • : T 


Hanukkah; Seven Days of the Week; Six Days of Cre- 
ation; Five Books of Moses; Four Mothers of Israel; 
Three Patriarchs; Two Tables of the Covenant; One 
God of the World. 

Who knows Ten? 

I know Ten: Ten Commandments; Nine Festivals; 
Eight Lights of Hanukkah; Seven Days of the Week; 
Six Days of Creation; Five Books of Moses; Four 
Mothers of Israel; Three Patriarchs; Two Tables of 
the Covenant; One God of the World. 

Who knows Eleven? 

I know Eleven: Eleven Stars in Joseph’s 

Dream; Ten Commandments; Nine Festivals; Eight 
Lights of Hanukkah; Seven Days of the Week; Six 
Days of Creation; Five Books of Moses; Four Mothers 
of Israel; Three Patriarchs; Two Tables of the Cov- 
enant; One God of the World. 

Who knows Twelve? 

I know Twelve: Twelve Tribes; Eleven Stars; Ten 
Commandments; Nine Festivals; Eight Lights of Ha- 
nukkah; Seven Days of the Week; Six Days of Creation; 
Five Books of Moses; Four Mothers of Israel; Three 
Patriarchs; Two Tables of the Covenant; One God of 
the World. 

Who knows Thirteen? 

I know Thirteen: Thirteen Attributes of God*; 
Twelve Tribes; Eleven Stars; Ten Commandments; 
Nine Festivals; Eight Lights of Hanukkah; Seven 
Days of the Week; Six Days of Creation; Five 
Books of Moses; Four Mothers of Israel; Three Patri- 
archs; Two Tables of the Covenant; One God of the 

* Exodus XXXIV: 6-7 


ימי חנכה. שבעה ימי שבתא. ששה סדרי 

משנה. חמשה חמשי תורה. ארבע אמהות. 

* : T :׳" * T .״ : •״ T ־ : ־ T * r 

שלשה אבות. שני לחות הברית. אחד אליהינו 

ו•• VI 

שבשמים ובארץ: 

V ־ I- T ״ V IT T 

עשרה מי יודע? 

2 - t t • ••ו¬ 

עשרה אני יודע. עשרה דבריא. תשעה 

:-דד :־ • ״ו- .״דד : - t : • t 

זמני שמחה. שמונה ימי חנכה. שבעה ימי 

p • T • • .. «■ • • ... •• • ■ך • • « • *« 

. * • T. . • • T 

שבתא. ששה סדרי משנה. חמשה חמשי תורה. 

— : T * T ״ : •• ״ : T ד־ * T •״ : •• T 

ארבע אמהות. שלשה אבות. שני לחות 

“ ־ ^ ״ T T5 T : - \ 

הברית. אחד אליהינו שבשמים ובארץ: 

- ג• v 1•• v1 tv - ד ־ 1 • I v it T 

אחד עשר מי יודע? 

- - t t • •*ו¬ 

אחד עשר אני יודע. אחד עשר כוכביא. 

־־ TT !־ ־ ״|~ ־־ I I TT ־ IT 

עשרה דבריא. תשעה זמני שמחה. שמונה ימי 

.— T : T 5 • •• — : T S * T - 2 * T T :•״ 

חנכה. שבעה ימי שבתא. ששה סדרי משנה. 

2 — •״ T 2 * •*2• T * T2* •*2 T2* T 

חמשה חמשי תורה. ארבע אמהות. שלשה 

•— * T ••2*• T ״ 2 ־ ^ * T2 T 

אבות. שני לחות הברית. אחד אלירינו 

T ! ״ •• ־ VI T V * S ••ן 

שבשמים ובארץ: 

T “ V ־ 1 • I V IT T 

שנים עשר מי יודע? 

: t t • ¬ו¬ 

שנים עשר אני יודע. שנים עשר שבטיא. 

# 2 • J TT ■ ״ •* T — 2 • TT *•• — I 

אחד עשר כוכביא. עשרה דבריא. תשעה 

־ ־ T:• T — ! * T T —J IT “ : I TT 

זמני שמחה. שמונה ימי הנכה. שבעה ימי 

«“•• * T • * T \ “1 — I V I VI ן — 


שבתא. ששה סדרי משנה. חמשה חמשי 

״ : T • *J T:* T • t 

תורה. ארבע אמהות. שלשה אבות. שני 
לחות הברית. אחד אליהינו שבשמים ובארץ: 

יי : ״ V8 TV ••ן V ־ I V IT T • I- T 

שלשה עשר מי יודע? 

: 1“ • T T T ־ 

שלשה עשר אני יודע. שלשה עשר מדיא. 

: 7 t T *- • ״ : TT T * ״ T 

שנים עשר שבטיא. אחד עשר כוכביא. עשרה 

! ״ T “ : • TT ־ ־ I T T ! •זו :- TT 

הבריא. תשעה זמני שמחה. שמונה ימי חנכה. 

* : ״ T : T : • T 5 • T ד־ •״ T 

שבעה ימי שבתא. ששה סררי משנה. חמשה 

• : 5 T *• ״ T • T J •:•״ • : T ד״ • T 

חמשי תורה. ארבע אמהות. שלשה אבות. 

,• • «• T י' • ^ • T T• t 

שני לחות הברית. אחד אלהינו שבשמים 

••• • «י • • •» — — — — — ־ T 

• • • • 


1•• VI 

T ־ 1 



Ehod Mi Yodea 


supi p 

^ j ■ ח 


hod elo - he ־ nu shebashsho - ma-yim u - vo ־ 0 ־ retz. 
hod elo- he - nu shebashsho - ma-yim u - vo - 0 - retz, 


Haft <©abtjo 

Allegorical meanings have been sought in the Had Gadyo, 
on the supposition that it illustrates the working of Divine 
justice in the history of mankind. In reality, it is a rhyme for 
children, to keep their interest to the end of the Seder. As in 
the preceding number so in this one, grown people become child- 
ren. The company reads in unison (not racing as in “Who 
Knows One” but) with regular rhythm, as to the beat of music; 
or sings it to one of the following musical settings. 

An only kid! 

An only kid. 

My father bought 
For two zuzim*. 
An only kid! 

Then came the cat 
And ate the kid 
My father bought 
For two zuzim. 

An only kid! 

An only kid! 

An only kid! 

. Then came the dog 
And bit the cat 
That ate the kid 
My father bought 
For two zuzim. 

An only kid! 

s *’t' 

An only kid! 


• Pieces of money. 




חד גדיא חד גדיא 

־: T ־ ־ : T 

דזבן אבא בתרי זוזי 

* J ״ I ״ H •••• T 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

־: T 

ואתא שונרא 

־ 1 “ IT י : IT 

ואכל לגדיא 

: T ־־ : T 

דזבן אבא בתרי זוזי 

* : “ י “ S * T “ -• 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

־: T ־ ־: T 

ואתא כלבא. 

-וד t : - it 

ונשך לשונרא. 

: T ־ ו : rr: I 

דאכל לגדיא. 

T J ־־ : ־: T 

דזבו אבא בתרי זוזי. 

״ : ־ * T • • 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

־: T *־ ־: T 


Then came the stick 
And beat the dog 
That bit the cat 
That ate the kid 
My father bought 
For two zuzim. 

An only kid! 

Then came the fire 
And burned the stick 
That beat the dog 
That bit the cat 
That ate the kid 

My father bought 
For two zuzim. 

An only kid! 

Then came the water 
And quenched the fire 
That burned the stick 
That beat the dog 
That bit the cat 
That ate the kid 
My father bought 
For two zuzim. 

An only kid! 

An only kid! 

An only kid! 

6 . 


An only kid! 

ואתא חוטרא. 


והכה לכלבא. 

י * T • • • T 

• T • • 

הנשר לשונרא. 

: T ־ : IT: I 

האכל לגדיא. 

: T - : -ג T 

חבו אבא בתרי זוזי. 

• : י• 1 יי t • ש 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

ואתא נורא. 

- I :־ T IT 

ושרף לחוטרא. 

: T ־ י : IT I I 

דהכה לכלבא. 

: * T : י־ : T 

דנשר לשונרא. 

: T ־ 1 : IT: I 

דאכל לגדיא. 

: T ־ : ־: T 

חבו אבא בתרי זוזי. 

• : ־ I ־ T • ; •־ M 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

־: T ־ ־ : T 

ואתא מיא. 

-| :- IT ־ T 

וכבה לנורא. 

T : T • : 

דשרף לחוטרא. 

: T ־ IT : I : I 

דהכה לכלבא. 

: • T : ־ : T 

דנשך לשונרא. 

: T ־ it: I : I 

האכל לגדיא. 

: T ־־ ! ־: T 

חבו אבא בתרי זוזי. 

• : ־־ “ T יי 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

“ - 5 T ־ ־: T 


7. Then came the ox 
And drank the water 
That quenched the fire 
That burned the stick 
That beat the dog 
That bit the cat 
That ate the kid 
My father bought 
For two zuzim. 

An only kid! An only kid! 

8. Then came the butcher 
And killed the ox 
That drank the water 
That quenched the fire 
That burned the stick 
That beat the dog 
That bit the cat 
That ate the kid 
My father bought 
For two zuzim. 

An only kid! 


An only kid! 

Then came the angel of death 
And slew the butcher 
That killed the ox 


ואתא תורא. 

־ 1 ד־ T IT 

ושתא למיא. 

: T T : ־ T 

דכבה לנורא. 

T : V • 5 

דשרף לחוטרא. 

: I - t : ו : זו 

דהכה לכלבא. 

: * 2 T ־ 2 T 

דנשך לשונרא. 

: T ־ IT: I : I 

דאכל לגדיא. 

: T ־ : ־: T 

דזבן אבא בתרי זוזי. 

• : ־ I ־ T .... “ 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

ואתא השוחט. 

־וד־ it - •• 

ושחט לתורא. 

: T ־ : T 

דשתא למיא. 

T - : T T 5 

רכבה לנורא. 

2 ״י T : T 

דשרף לחוטרא. 

: T ־ IT : I : I 

דהכה לכלבא. 

T 2 - 2 T • 2 

דנשך לשונרא. 

T S ־ IT: I : I 

דאכל לגדיא. 

־ : T 

דזבן אבא בתרי זוזי, 

* 2 ־ I ־־ T ״ 2 ״״ - 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

ואתא מלאך המות. 

- 21 - IT ־ 2 ־ I ־ V T 

ושחט לשוחט. 

2 T ־ : •• 

דשחט לתודא. 

To T • 


That drank the water 
That quenched the fire 
That burned the stick 
That beat the dog 
That bit the cat 
That ate the kid 
My father bought 
For two zuzim. 

An only kid! An only kid! 

Then came the Holy One, blest be He! 

And destroyed the angel of death 

That slew the butcher 

That killed the ox 

That drank the water 

That quenched the fire 

That burned the stick 

That beat the dog 

That bit the cat 

That ate the kid 

My father bought 

For two zuzim. 

An only kid! 

10 . 

An only kid! 


דשתא לכיא: 

T T T : 

דכבה לנורא. 

5 • t : ד 

דשרף לחוטרא. 

: 7 ־ IT 5 I : I 

רחבה לכלבא. 

: * T : ־ : T 

דנשך לשונרא. 

: T ־ IT: I : I 

דאכל לגדיא. 

: T ־ : ־ : T 

דזבן אבא בתרי זהי. 

* J ״ I ״ ץ • • ״• •• 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

T !* 

־ : T 

ואתא הקדוש ברוך הוא. 

־ 21 ־ t It- it 

ושחט למלאך המות. 

: T ־ : ־־ : ־ V T “ I 

דשחט לשוחט. 

♦« • ■ T • 

• • • 

דשהט לתורא. 

: T ־ : T 

דשתא למיא. 

: T T : ־ T 

רכבה לנורא. 

T : T • J 

דשרף לחוטרא. 

: T ־ IT : I : I 

דהכה לכלבא. 

T • J : ־ T J 

דנשך לשונרא. 

: T ” ו : IT: I 

דאכל לגדיא. 

דזבו אבא בתרי זוזי. 

•• •••• • ■ “ • • 

• T • 

חד גדיא חד גדיא: 

Had Gadyo 




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Vav{\n JIaUaij’lof) 

“and it came to pass at mtdnioht. ” 

All read the third line of each stanza in unison. 

Unto God let praise be brought 
For the wonders He hath wrought— 

At the solemn hour of midnight. 

All the earth was sunk in night 
When God said “Let there be light!” 

Thus the day was formed from midnight. 

So was primal man redeemed 
When the light of reason gleamed 

Through the darkness of the midnight. 

To the Patriarch, God revealed 
The true faith, so long concealed 
By the darkness of the midnight. 

But this truth was long obscured 
By the slavery endured 

In the black Egyptian midnight. 

Till the messengers of light 
Sent by God, dispelled the night, 

And it came to pass at midnight. 


Then the people God had freed 
Pledged themselves His law to heed, 

And it came to pass at midnight. 

When they wandered from the path 
Of the Lord, His righteous wrath 
Hurled them into darkest midnight. 

But the prophets’ burning word 
By repentant sinners heard 

Called them back from darkest midnight 

God a second time decreed 
That His people should be freed 

From the blackness of the midnight. 

Songs of praise to God ascend, 

Festive lights their glory lend 
To illuminate the midnight. 

Soon the night of exile falls 
And within the Ghetto walls 

Israel groans in dreary midnight. 

Anxiously with God they plead, 

Who still trust His help in need, 

In the darkest hour of midnight. 

And He hears their piteous cry. 

“Wait! be strong, My help is nigh, 

Soon ’twill pass — the long-drawn midnight 

“Tenderly I cherished you 
For a service great and true; 

When ’tis past—the long-drawn midnight. *’ 


O, Thou Guardian of the Right, 

Lead us onward to the light 

From the darkness of the midnight. 

Father, let the day appear 
When all men Thy name revere 
And Thy light dispels the midnight. 

When no longer shall the foe 
From th’ oppressed wring cries of woe 
In the darkness of the midnight. 

But Thy love all hearts shall sway; 

And Thy light drive gloom away, 

And to midday change the midnight. 


En Kelolienu 



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pilgrim s pridelFrom ev ־ , ry mountainside, Let freedom ring! 
templed hillsrMy heart with rapture thrills Like that a ־ bove. 

4• Our fathers’ God, to Thee, 
Author of liberty. 

To Thee we sing: 

Long may our land be bright * 
With freedom’s holy light• 
Protect us by Thy might* 
Great God, oar King* 

^Let music swell the breeze, 
And ring from all the trees 
Sweet freedoms song.' 

. Let mortal tongues awake; 
Let all that breathe partake; 
Let rocks their silence break, 
The sound prolong. 




Clje $as£ober 

in 3|fetorp, literature anb Hit. 



^tstorg of tfje $as&cber 

S THE rocks of granite yield to the 
trained eye of the scientist the secret of 
their formation, so human institutions, 
properly examined, present records of 
growth. Such a story of development, 
in response to changing social conditions, 
is displayed by the feast of the Passover. 


Its name hag happesah harks back to the misty 
dawn of history. Long before the Exodus, the pas- 
toral tribes of Israel celebrated this festival of the 
shepherds. As among other pastoral tribes, so among 
our forefathers, the joyous springtime, with its rich 
manifestation of fertility through the offspring of the 
flocks and herds, called forth special festivities. Moses 
pleaded with Pharaoh in behalf of the Israelites: “Let 
us go, we pray thee, three days journey in the wilder- 
ness, and sacrifice unto the Lord our God; lest He fall 
upon us with pestilence, or with the sword”. * 
When they were refused, the Israelite families offered 
the Pesah sacrifices in their homes in Egypt. 

The exact meaning of the name given to this festi- 
val and the nature of its ceremonies are matters of 
conjecture. Its celebration in the early spring, was as- 


* Exodus V: 3. 

sociated with the sacrifice of the firstlings of the flocks 
and herds. The modified ordinance regarding its 
observance in Egypt, as given in Exodus XII, reads: 
“In the tenth day of this month they shall take to 
them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’ 
houses, a lamb for a household; and if the household 
be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbor 
next unto his house take one according to the num- 
ber of the souls; according to every man’s eating 
ye shall make your count for the lamb. Your lamb 
shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; 
ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats; 
and ye shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the 
same month; and the whole assembly of the congre- 
gation of Israel shall kill it at dusk. And they 
shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side- 
posts and on the lintel, upon the house wherein they 
shall eat it. And they shall eat the flesh in that night, 
roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs 
they shall eat it. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at 
all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its 
legs and with the inwards thereof. And ye shall let 
nothing of it remain until the morning; but that which 
remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with 
fire. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, 
your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; 
and ye shall eat it in haste — it is the Lord’s passover.”* 

Only Israelites and initiated strangers could par- 
ticipate in the Passover. Through the partaking of 
the sacrificial meat, they sought to strengthen their 
union with one another and with God, and by means 
of consecrating their dwellings with the blood of the 
sacrifice, they hoped to ward off every harm and danger. 

The departure of the Israelites from Egypt during 
* Exodus XII: 3-11. 


the spring festival vested the ancient rite with new 
historical significance. The name Pesah assumed 
the meaning of “passing over,” of sparing and deliver- 
ing, and its observance came to be interpreted as a 
memorial of God’s appearance as the avenger of Israel's 
wrongs. The blood upon the doorposts and lintels 
was construed to have been a sign upon the homes of 
the Israelites to distinguish them from those of the 
Egyptians. Tradition described it as “the sacrifice 
of the Lord’s passover, for that He passed over the 
houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when He 
smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses“.’״ 


With their entrance into Canaan, the shepherd tribes 
of Israel began to follow agricultural pursuits. Among 
the older settlers of the land they found the custom 
of offering to the deity, at the spring of the year, 
the first fruit of their early harvest. They not only 
adopted this idea that an offering of their first grain was 
due to God, but extended it also to the firstlings of 
their flocks and herds. Thus the Passover sacrifice, 
while retaining its ancient ceremonials, received the 
new meaning of being a tribute due to God from the 
fold. It was also combined with the feast of Matzos 
or Unleavened Bread, the spring festival of the agri- 
cultural Canaanite community, observed in the month 
of Abib, before the beginning of the harvest season. 
The important feature of this celebration was the eat- 
ing of matzos or cakes prepared of unleavened dough. 
As sacrificial food, it was to be free from leaven.** 
“It is very probable”, writes Dr. Julian Morgenstern, 
“that among the ancient Canaanites and the early 

* Exodus XII: 27. 

** Leviticus II: 11; VI: 10. 


agricultural Israelites, the custom existed of destroy* 
ing the usually meager remains of the old crop before 
the new crop could be used or even harvested. And 
if this hypothesis be correct, we must see in the cere- 
monies of the destruction of all leaven, of the fasting 
before the Matzos-festival and of the eating of the 
matzos themselves, the religious, sacramental rites by 
which the last remains of the old crop were destroyed 
as the necessary preparation for the cutting and eat- 
ing of the new crop. All of the old crop was thus 
burned except just enough to prepare the matzos for 
the festival. ”* 

The later law, as given in Leviticus XXIII:5ff, 
combines the pastoral and agricultural elements of 
the feast. It reads: “In the first month, on the four- 
teenth day of the month at dusk, is the Lord’s pass- 
over. And on the fifteenth day of the same month 
is the feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord; seven 
days shall ye eat unleavened bread”. On the second 
day of the feast, the barley harvest was ushered in 
by bringing a sheaf of the new crop unto the priest. 
“And he shall wave the sheaf before the Lord, to be 
accepted for you.. .And ye shall eat neither bread, 
nor parched corn, nor fresh ears, until this selfsame 
day, until ye have brought the offering of your God.” 
From that day forty-nine days were counted, and the 
fiftieth was observed as Shabuoth (Feast of Weeks) or 
as Hag Habikkurim, the “feast of the first fruits”. 
(In the orthodox synagogues the seven weeks between 
the first day of Pesah and Shabuoth are still known as 
the season of S’firath Hoomer, of “counting the sheaf”.) 

In the light of the association of the feast of Matzos 
with that of Pesah, the eating of the matzos was re-in- 
terpreted as a reminder of the hurried flight of the 

* The American Journal of Theology, vol. XXI, p. 288. 


Israelites from Egypt. Exodus XII :39 states: “And 
they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they 
brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; 
because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not 
tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any 


It was the tradition of the Exodus that vitalized 
the old Pesah and Matzos festivals, and welded them 
into a distinctly Jewish institution, rich in ethical and 
religious possibilities. The national consciousness 
lovingly dwelt upon the fact that: 

“When Israel came forth out of Egypt, 

The house of Jacob from a people of strange 

Judah became His sanctuary, 

Israel His dominion.”* 

The hour which marked the birth of Israel as a holy 
nation, eloquently demonstrated to the religious mind 
the love of God for Israel. Prophetic idealism trans- 
formed this belief into a powerful lever of spiritual 
progress. “Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyp- 
tians”,resounded the voice of God, “and how I bore you 
on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto Myself. 
Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed 
and keep My covenant, then ye shall be Mine own 
treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is 
Mine; and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, 
and a holy nation.”** The belief in God’s choice 
of Israel, determined Israel’s mission in the world. 
The high privilege imposed great responsibility. 

* Psalm CXIV: 1-2. 

** Exodus XIX: 4-5. 


As the people chosen by God, in accordance with His 
plan of the universal salvation of mankind, Israel 
must keep faith with God and be “a covenant of the 
people” and ”a light of the nations: 

To open the blind eyes, 

To bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, 

And them that sit in darkness out of the 

The conviction that Israel was delivered from its 
low estate to become the deliverer of the nations from 
moral and spiritual slavery, led to the comforting 
Divine assurance: 

”When thou passest through the waters, I will be 
with thee, 

And through the rivers, they shall not overflow 

When thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt 
not be burned, 

Neither shall the flame kindle upon thee. 

For I am the Lord thy God, 

The Holy One of Israel, thy Savior; 

I have given Egypt as thy ransom. 

Ethiopia and Seba for thee. 

Since thou art precious in My sight, and honor- 

And I have loved thee; 

Therefore will I give men for thee, 

And peoples for thy life. 

Fear not, for I am with thee.”** 


(1) The Passover During the Second Temple. 

As the feast of Israel’s independence, the Passover 

*Isaiah XLII: 6-7. 

**Isaiah XLIII: 2-5. 


steadily grew in the hearts of the people. It gained 
new power, when subsequent to the Deuteronomic re- 
formation, under King Josiah (621 B.C.E.),the Passover 
sacrifices, like all other offerings, had to be brought to 
the national sanctuary at Jerusalem. During the en- 
tire period of the Second Temple the Passover celebration 
served as a strong influence in the unification of Israel. 
Josephus refers to the great alacrity with which the 
Jewish people celebrated the Passover, and states that 
on it “they are required to slay more sacrifices in 
number that at any other festival”. He also points 
out that “an innumerable multitude came thither out 
of the country, nay, from beyond its limits also, in 
order to worship God”. He estimates that one year, 
shortly before the fall of the Temple, the number of 
sacrifices reached 256,500, which, upon the allowance 
of ten to each sacrifice, together with the considerable 
number of foreigners and of Jews who were prevented 
from partaking of the Passover on account of bodily 
uncleanliness,* made the vast crowd that thronged 
the holy city upward of 2,700,200. 

(2) The Passover Sacrifice .** 

For many days before the Passover, the people would 
come from every village and hamlet to celebrate the 
feast of unleavened bread in Jerusalem. By the four- 
teenth of Nisan the houses were crowded with guests, 
the open spaces were dotted with tents and the streets 
filled with the joyous pilgrims. Beneath the merry- 
making, ran an undercurrent of earnest haste, for the 
great feast was close at hand. The houses were being 

*Those that were prevented from performing their duty 
on the 14th of Nisan were allowed to offer the Passover sacrifice 
on the 14th of Iyar. See Numbers IX: 9-14. 

**According to the Mishnah Pesahim. 


cleaned of leaven, and special ovens were being pre- 
pared for the roasting of the paschal lambs. 

Frequently in the midst of their labors, the people 
would look up to the Temple mount, where on one of 
the Temple galleries lay two sacrificial loaves, which 
served as a signal to them. As long as the priests 
allowed these loaves to remain, leavened bread could 
still be kept in the houses. But soon one loaf was re- 
moved, and then immediately afterwards the second 
loaf was taken away. At that signal fires leaped up 
all over the city. The last leaven was being burnt. 
For seven days thereafter only unleavened bread 
would be found in all the habitations of Israel. 

Now the seventh hour of the day had passed and 
the regular daily offering had already been brought 
up. The time for the sacrifice of the paschal offering 
itself had come. Great throngs of people pressed a- 
gainst the gates of the Temple, each man leading his 
sacrificial lamb. Soon the gates were opened but only 
one-third of the throng was admitted. As they poured 
into the Temple courts, they beheld three rows of priests 
extending across the sacred precinct. The first and 
last rows carried silver basins, the intervening carried 
basins of gold. The first man carried his lamb to the 
altar where it was sacrificed. The blood was caught 
in one of the basins and handed from priest to priest, 
each one receiving the empty basin in return for the 
filled one. Thus with very little delay, all the sacrifices 
were completed. While these sacrifices were being 
performed, the Levites chanted aloud the Hallel Psalms, 
the people responding in unison. After the first group 
of pilgrims completed its sacrifices, the second group 
was admitted, and then the third. When all the sacri- 
fices were over, the people went to their houses and 
proceeded to roast the paschal lamb and make all pre- 


parations for the great Seder service, which was to 
take place in every home that evening. 


During the centuries of Roman oppression, when 
the Jewish people groaned under the crushing burden 
of the Caesars, even as did their forefathers in Egypt, 
the ancient Feast of Freedom was charged with new 
vitality. Its annual recurrence came like a summons 
to new life and to liberty, making each Israelite feel 
as if he personally had shared in the Exodus. This 
sentiment was fostered by the new ritual for the home 
which replaced the Passover sacrifice after the Temple 
and the altar had been destroyed. While the Seder 
service was commemorative of the sacrificial rites at 
the Temple (the roast bone representing the paschal 
lamb, and the egg the additional festive offerings, the 
Hagigah), it was essentially propagandist in nature. 
The recital of the storv of the Exodus was calculated 
to awaken the national consciousness. It became a 
duty to tell the young and to rehearse to one another 
the tale of the deliverance from Egyptian bondage. 
To dwell at length on it was considered praiseworthy. 
During the Hadrianic persecution, we find Rabbi 
Akiba, the moving spirit in Bar Cochba’s heroic 
struggle to regain the independence of the Jewish 
people, together with other leaders in Israel, at B’nai 
B ’rak, absorbed in the story of the Exodus all night, 
looking to the fulfillment of the prophetic promise to 

As in the days of thy coming forth out of the 
land of Egypt 

Will I show unto him marvelous things. 


• Micah VII, 15. 

Commemorating the deliverance from Egyptian bond- 
age (“ Pesah Mitzrayim”), the Passover held out the 
promise of the future redemption from Roman bondage 
(“ Pesah L’osid”). Another belief, too, became current 
that God’s anointed (the Messiah) would appear on 
the anniversary of Israel’s liberation, to reestablish 
the fallen tabernacle of David. Several self-deluded 
men, under the spell of this belief, proclaimed them- 
selves as the long expected Messiahs. Thus in all 
ages, the Passover proved to be a perennial source 
of hope. Celebrating it, the Jewish people defied 
their ever new Pharaohs and Caesars, declaring prayer- 
fully: “This year we are slaves; next year may we be 
free men”. To souls crushed with anguish the “Z’man 
Herusenu — the season of our liberation” held out the 
promise of the coming day when all fetters of oppres- 
sion would be broken, when the clouds of religious big- 
otry and racial prejudice and hatred would be dispell- 
ed by the dawning light of God’s truth, and when 
Israel’s dormant powers would awaken to new life 
and blossom forth in renewed glory. 


Israel’s experience was unique from the first when 
it departed from Egypt. Again and again races have 
been subjugated, reduced to slavery or villenage; but 
does history know of another horde of slaves that re- 
covered itself, regained freedom, reestablished its own 
civilization, its own government? It is eminently 
proper, therefore, that in the prophetic as well as the 
Rabbinic cycle of ideas the Exodus from Egypt should 
occupy a prominent place. Its importance had been 
recognized still earlier, in the code, the Torah. The 
most exalted moral statutes concerning the treat- 
ment of strangers are connected with the Exodus, and 


I v 

are, from a psychologic point of view, impressively 
inculcated by means of the reminder: “Ye know the 
heart of the stranger!”* It is remarkable how even the 
law of the Sabbath rest, at first sight unconnected with 
the story of Israel’s slavery and redemption, is brought 
into relation with and illuminated by it. The fourth 
commandment in the second version of the Ten Com- 
mandments, in Deuteronomy, disregards the dogmatic 
reason attached to the first (“for in six days the Lord 
made’’ etc) .** It emphasizes the ethical motive, that the 
manservant and the maid-servant should be granted a 
day of rest, and employs the memory of the Egyptian 
experience to urge consideration for subordinates. 
This method, characteristic of the Bible and still more 
of the Rabbis, of establishing a connection between the 
most important moral laws and the history of Israel 
in Egypt, at the same time illustrates how nations 
should draw instruction from their fortunes. 

The Prophets and Psalmists employ the great 
historical event to give reality chiefly to the religious 
idea of God’s providence and grace. The Rabbis, 
finally, deduce from it the two fundamental elements 
of man’s ethical educaton: the notion of liberty and 
the notion of man’s ethical task. 

Political and even civil freedom was lost. The 
Roman Pharaohs, if they did not exact labor, the 
more despotically exacted property and blood, and 
aimed at the annihilation of ideal possessions—the Law, 
its study, and its execution. Yet the notion of liberty, 
inner moral and spiritual liberty, cherished as a pure, 
exalted ideal, possible only under and through the Law, 
was associated with the memory of the redemption 

* Exodus XX1I1: 9. 

** Exodus XX: 11. 


from Egyptian slavery, and this memory in turn was 
connected with symbolic practices accompanying every 
act, pleasure, and celebration. 

Moritz Lazarus, 

The Ethics ot Judaism, Part 1, p. 231-2 and 29. 


'‘How small Sinai appears when Moses stands 
upon it! This mountain is only the pedestal for 
the feet of the man whose head reaches up to the 
heavens, where he speaks with God.” 

The artistic spirit was directed by Moses, “as 
by his Egyptian compatriots, to colossal and in- 
destructible undertakings. He built human pyramids, 
carved human obelisks; he took a poor shepherd family 
and created a nation from it — a great eternal, holy 
people; a people of God, destined to outlive /he 
centuries, and to serve as pattern to all other na- 
tions, even as a prototype to the whole of mankind. 
He created Israel,” . . . a people that has "fought and 
suffered on every battlefield of human thought.” 

Heinrich Heine 

To lead into freedom a people long crushed by 
tyranny; to discipline and order such a mighty host; 
to harden them into fighting men, before whom warlike 
tribes quailed and walled cities went down; to repress 
discontent and jealousy and mutiny; to combat re- 
actions and reversions; to turn the quick, fierce flame of 
enthusiasm to the service of a steady purpose, require 
some towering character — a character blending in 
highest expression the qualities of politician, patriot, 
philosopher, and statesman — the union of the wisdom of 
the Egyptians with the unselfish devotion of the 
meekest of men. 

The striking differences between Egyptian and Hebrew 
polity are not of form but of essence. The tendency of the 
one is to subordination and oppression; of the other, to 
individual freedom. Strangest of recorded birth! From 


the strongest and most splendid despotism of antiquity 
comes the freest republic. From between the paws of 
the rock-hewn Sphinx rises the genius of human liberty, 
and the trumpets of the Exodus throb with the defiant 
proclamation of the rights of man ... In the character- 
istics of the Mosaic institutions, as in the fragments 
of a Colossus, we may read the greatness of the mind 
whose impress they bear — of a mind in advance of its 
surroundings, in advance of its age; of one of those star 
souls that dwindle not with distance, but, glowing with 
the radiance of essential truth, hold their light while in- 
stitutions and languages and creeds change and pass. 

Leader and servant of men! Law-giver and bene- 
factor! Toiler towards the Promised Land seen only by 
the eye of faith! Type of the high souls who in every 
age have given to earth its heroes and its martyrs, 
whose deeds are the precious possession of the race, 
whose memories are its sacred heritage! With whom 
among the founders of Empire shall we compare him? 

To dispute about the inspiration of such a man were 
to dispute about words. From the depths of the Un- 
seen such characters must draw their strength; from 
fountains that flow only for the pure in heart must 
come their wisdom. Of something more real than 
matter, of something higher than the stars, of a light 
that will endure when suns are dead and dark, of a 
purpose of which the physical universe is but a passing 
phase, such lives tell. 

Henry George, Lecture on Moses, 1884 


^reparatinns Jfor HTfje i}3nssol1er 


Though the Bible calls for the observance of Passover 
for seven days, the changing conditions of Jewish 
life before the fall of Jerusalem (70 C.E.) produced 
an eighth day of the Feast. As the calendar was not 
yet established, the Sanhedrin, exercising its religious 
authority, proclaimed each New Moon (“Rosh Ho- 
desh”), and thereby regulated the dates of the festivals. 
However, its decisions were not always conveyed to 
the distant Jewish settlements in time to celebrate the 
holy days at the right season. To obviate this difficulty, 
the Jewish communities, outside of Palestine, added 
an extra day to each festival. When a permanent 
calendar was finally framed by Hillel II, in 360 C. E., 
and the dates of the holy days were no longer in doubt, 
the Rabbis of Babylonia wished to drop the second 
day of festivals, but they were advised by the 
Palestinian authorities not to break an established 
custom. Reform Judaism, recognizing that this custom 
causes needless hardship to Jewish people, in com- 
mercial and industrial centers, abolished the second 
day of festivals. Accordingly reform Jews, follow- 
ing the biblical law, keep Passover seven days, be- 
ginning on the eve of the 15th and ending on the 
21st of Nisan. The first and last days are holy days 
on which divine services are held in the synagogues. 
The intervening days, known as “Hoi Hamoed’’are 
half-holy days. 



With the cessation of the sacrificial cult the ori- 
ginal distinction between the feast of Pesah and that 
of Matzos disappeared to all practical purposes. The 
prominent feature of the feast came to be the eating 
of matzo. “The eating of matzo during Passover, 
unlike the prohibition against eating hometz, is not 
imperative; it is a voluntary act (‘r’shus’). That 
is, a Jew may abstain from eating both hometz and 
matzo, except on the first eve, when the eating of 
matzo is obligatory (‘hovoh’)”. Matzo may be made 
of flour of wheat, barley, spelt, oats, or rye. Special 
care must be exercised in kneading and baking to 
prevent the fermentation of the dough. “In the early 
centuries matzo-baking was done by the wife daily, 
for the household use. In the middle ages prepara- 
tions were made to bake matzos thirty days before 
Passover, except the Matzo Sh’miroh ('observance 
Matzo’, prepared with special care for use on the Pass- 
over eve by men of extreme piety), which was baked 
in the afternoon of the 14th of Nisan, at a time when 
the Passover lamb was formerly sacrificed. Still 
later, when the community had a communal oven, 
it was incumbent on the lord of the house to super- 
intend the matzo-baking for his family. . .. About 
1875 matzo-baking machinery was invented in Eng- 
land, and soon after introduced into America”, where 
it became an important industry. To keep the matzo 
from rising and swelling in baking, it was perforated 
after being rolled into shape, by means of a ‘reidel’, 
or wheel provided with sharp teeth and attached 
to a handle. “The perforator, usually a youth, would 
run his reidel through the matzo in lines crossed at 
right angles and about one inch apart. The matzo- 


machine has an automatic perforator that makes 
lines at intervals of a half inch.”* 


While the law regarding unleavened bread is simple, 
the prohibitions of the use of leaven, or hometz, 
during the Pesah week, grew exceedingly complex. 
Rabbinical law forbids not only the eating of leavened 
bread but also the derivation of any benefit from it. 
Every trace of leaven has to be removed be- 
fore the feast sets in. Hence there arose the quaint 
ceremony of “b’dikas hometz—searching for leaven”, 
still observed by orthodox Jews. On the eve of 
the 14th of Nisan, i.e. on the night before Passover eve, 
after the evening service, the head of the house de- 
posits crumbs of bread in conspicuous places, on window 
sills or open shelves, and, taking a wooden spoon in 
one hand and a few feathers in the other, begins the 
naive ”search for leaven”. The children enjoy the 
privilege of following him with a lighted taper. Bless- 
ing God for the command of removing the leaven, he 
proceeds, in strict silence, to sweep the crumbs into 
the wooden spoon with the feathers. When the task 
is done, he makes this solemn declaration, in Aramaic: 
“All manner of leaven that is in my possession, which 
I have not seen or removed, shall be as naught, and 
accounted as the dust of the earth”. He then ties 
the spoon, feathers and leaven in one bundle and de- 
posits it in a safe place. The following morning, after 
break fast, he proceeds to burn the bundle of hometz. This 
ceremonv known as “bi‘ur hometz — destruction of the 
leaven”, is preceded by a declaration, similar to that 

*J. D. Eisenstein art. “Mazza” in the Jewish Encyclo- 
pedia, vol. VIII, pp. 393-396. 


made on the night before, disclaiming responsibility for 
any leaven that may still be found on the premises. 

The Jewish mystics read a higher meaning into this 
as into all other ceremonies. Regarding hometz as 
the symbol of sordidness and corruption, they beheld 
»n the ceremony of its removal a summons to man to 
destroy the evil of his heart. 

d. “kashering” the utensils. 

It is also customary among orthodox Jews to put 
away, for the period of the feast, all dishes and kitchen 
utensils that are used for the hometz, and to replace 
them with new ones or with such as are especially 
kept for Pesah. Some vessels are retained for the 
holiday after undergoing the process of “kashering”, 
i.e. of being made fit for Passover use: glass-ware and 
porcelain are dipped into boiling water, and iron vessels 
are passed through fire and made hot. 

Reform Judaism does not consider these practices 
essential to the proper observance of the Passover. 

Hmrtitoalg of ®fje Ancient ^assober 


The observance of the Passover by the Samaritan 
sect, native to Samaria, the central region of Palestine, 
casts much light upon this institution in biblical times. 
James A. Montgomery gives this interesting outline 
of the function: 

“The solemnity is a veritable Haj, or pilgrim feast. 
The whole community proceeds to the place of sacrifice 
on Mount Gerizim, allowing abundance of time for 
the preparations. The tents are pitched, and all 
eagerly await the appointed hour, which occurs at 
sunset,—for so the Samaritans interpret the phrase 
‘between the evenings’.* A number of lambs have been 
carefully selected from those born in the preceding 
Tishri, and of these so many as will suffice for the wor- 
shippers are destined for the sacrifice, generally from 
five to seven, although others are at hand in case anyone 
of them is ritually unfit. Some hours before the sacrifice 
two fires are started in the trenches; in one of them 
a caldron is heated for boiling the water necessary to 
fleece the lambs, in the other a mass of fuel is kindled 
to make the oven for roasting the lambs. All these 
preparations are in the hands of young men,** 
who sometimes are clad in blue robes. Coincident 
with the starting of the fire, the service begins and 

*Exodus XII: 6. 

**Cf. Exodus XXIV: 5• 


this is kept up until the lambs are put into the oven; 
it consists in the reading of the Passover lections from 
Exodus, and ancient Passover hymns. A certain 
number of representative men render the antiphons. 
In the service all turn toward the Kibla, the top of 
Gerizim. At sunset the sacrifice takes place, not on 
an altar but in a ditch; the throats of the lambs are 
deftly cut by a young man, not by the priest. The 
ritual inspection then takes place, the sinews of the 
legs are withdrawn,* the offal removed, and the lambs 
fleeced by aid of the hot water. The lambs are then 
spitted with a long stick run through their length, 
and are conveyed to the heated oven, over which they 
are laid, the spits protruding on either side, while above 
them is laid a thick covering of turf to seal the oven. 
The process of roasting takes three or four hours, 
during which time the worshipers may rest, the service 
being mostly intermitted. When it is deemed the 
proper time, the lambs are withdrawn, and present 
a blackened and repulsive aspect. A short service 
then ensues, the congregation now appearing with 
their loins girt up and their staves in their hands,** 
and when the service is over, veritably ‘eat in haste’, 
for they fall ravenously upon the coal-like pieces of 
flesh, devouring it and taking plattersful to the women 
and children, who remain in the tents. When all 
the flesh is consumed, the bones, scraps, wool, are 
carefully gathered up, and thrown into the still smol- 
dering fire, until all is consumed, ‘so that none of it re- 
main till the morrow’. After the meal ablutions take 
place, and the ceremony is concluded with further 
prayers and chants. According to the prescriptions 
of Numbers IX, the ‘.Second Passover’ is allowed. 

*Genesis XXXII: 32. 

**Exodus XII: 11. 


“In close connection with the Passover is the least 
of Unleaven, or Massot, which is reckoned as the second 
sacred feast, being distinguished from the Passover, 
although coincident with it, according to the language 
of the Law. On the 13th of the month a careful 
search is made for all leaven, which is scrupulously 
removed, and from the 14th day till the 21st no leaven 
may be eaten. The 21st is the great day of this 
feast, and on it they make pilgrimage to Gerizim, 
reading through the book of Deuteronomy on the way 
and at the village Makkada, where they finally halt.” 

The Samaritans, pp. 38-40. 


The Jews of Abyssinia, known among their neighbors 
as Falashas, according to Dr. Jacques Faitlovitch, 
who has visited them and has pleaded their cause 
before the Jews of Europe and America, celebrate the 
Passover “for seven days, and during this time they 
eat only unleavened bread and do not drink any fer- 
mented drinks. Several days before the feast, the 
homes are carefully cleaned, all articles of clothing 
are properly washed, and all vessels and utensils 
thoroughly scoured and cleaned like new. Three 
days before Passover, they stop eating leavened bread 
and take nothing but dried peas and beans, and on 
the eve of Passover they abstain from all food until 
after the sacrifice of the paschal lamb. On this day, 
a little before the setting of the sun, all assemble in 
the court of the synagogue, and in the name of the 
entire community, the sacrificer offers the paschal 
lamb upon the altar. The ceremony is observed with 
great pomp; the ritual prescribed in the Bible for this 
sacrifice is followed punctiliously, and after the sacri- 
fice is slaughtered and roasted, the meat is eaten with 


unleavened bread by the priestly assistants. It is 
in this manner that the festival is inaugurated. On 
the following days they assemble in the Mesgid (‘the 
place of prayer’) at fixed hours, observing a special 
ritual and reciting various prayers and biblical texts 
having reference to the Exodus of the Israelites from 

American Jewish Year Book, 5681. p. 89. 

I^aggober anb Cfjristeniiom 


The Jewish Passover, in modified form, became the 
leading festival of the Christian Church. The Eng- 
lish name Easter “isderived from Eostreor Ostara, the 
Anglo-Saxon goddess of Spring, to whom the month an- 
swering to our April and called Eostre-monath, was ded- 
icated. This month, Bede says, was the same as the 
mensis paschalis ‘when the old festival was observed 
with the gladness of a new solemnity’ ״. In other Eu- 
ropean languages the name of the festival is derived 
through the medium of Latin and Greek from the He- 
brew pesah. The early Christians continued to observe 
the Jewish festivals, but invested them with new mean- 
ings. Thus the Passover, with the new conception add- 
ed to it of Christ as the true Paschal Lamb and the first 
fruits from the dead, continued to be observed, and be- 
came the Christian Easter.* However, it is incorrect to 
speak of Pesah as the Jewish Easter, for while Pesah 
celebrates the deliverance of Israel from slavery, 
Easter commemorates the death and the legendary 
resurrection of the Christ. 

The Seder, too, has exerted great influence upon 
Christianity. In his book on Jewish Contributions to 
Civilization, p.91, Joseph Jacobs writes: “The central 

* See the article on Easter in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
Xlth edition, vol. VIIl ; pp. 828-829. 



function of the Church service, the Mass, (or in Pro- 
testant Churches, the Communion), derives its ‘elements’ 
in the last resort, from the wine and unleavened bread 
used at the home service of the Passover; and Bickel 
(in "The Lord’s Supper and the Passover Ritual”) 
has shown that the original ritual of the Mass is de- 
rived from that of the Seder service.” 


By a strange irony of fate the Passover season, the 
Spring-time of nature and of freedom, became the signal 
for the most furious attacks upon the Jews by their 
Christian neighbors. Unacquainted with Jewish cus* 
toms and beliefs, many of them maintained an antago- 
nistic and distrustful attitude toward the Jews. Any 
malicious superstition about Jewish rites found open 
ears among the ignorant rabble. Hence the care 
taken in preparing the matzos, and the use of red wine 
in the Seder service became fruitful sources of wild 
speculation. These things rendered the coming of 
the Passover a time of dread and anguish for the Jewish 


The distinguished Frenchman, Anatole Leroy 
Beaulieu, writes feelingly about "that senseless charge 
which, for centuries, has cost the lives of so many 
Israelites in every country, although at no time has 
it been possible to fasten the slightest guilt upon a 
single Jew. 

‘‘In Russia, Poland, Roumania, Bohemia and Hungary, 
the common people believe that the Jews need Christian 
blood for the preparation of their unleavened bread, 
the Passover matzos. In the villages, even in the cities 
in Eastern Europe, where beneath a thin veneer of 


modern culture, so often are found the ideas and beliefs 
of the Middle Ages, the peasant and the laborer have 
no doubt that the Jews require the blood taken from 
Christian veins in order to celebrate their Passover. 
He does not know, this Magyar peasant or Russian 
moujik, that, according to the testimony of Tertullian 
and of Minucius Felix, the same absurd and odious 
charge was brought against the early Christians by the 
pagans, who, in their malicious thirst for damaging in- 
formation, no doubt mistook for a real sacrifice the mys- 
tical immolation of the Lamb of the Eucharist. No 
sooner has a Christian child disappeared, no sooner have 
the police discovered the corpse of a young boy or girl 
in the river or in the town-moat, than the public voice 
accuses the knife of the ‘schaechter’, the Jewish 
butcher, even though the body may not bear a single 
mark of violence. This is so well known that murderers 
have been seen dragging the bodies of their victims 
through the alleys of the Jewish quarters, confident, 
thereby, to divert the suspicion and fury of the crowd.” 

Israel among the Nations, pp. 36-7. 
See also Prof. H. L. Strack’s article on 
Blood Accusation in the Jewish Ency- 
clopedia, vol. II, pp. 260 ff. 


Though we live in the bright sunlight of liberty, 
many of our brethren still dwell in lands of darkness 
and are still made victims of malice and hatred. The 
blood libel has been frequently employed against them 
by their enemies as a means of inciting the ignorant 
mobs to riots and pogroms. During the notorious 
Beilis trial, in 1912, the leading British authors, 
editors, scientists, statesmen and heads of all the Chris- 
tian denominations issued the following statement: 


“We desire to associate ourselves with the protests 
signed in Russia, France, and Germany by leading 
Christian Theologians, Men of Letters, Scientists, 
Politicians, and others against the attempt made in 
the City of Kieff to revive the hideous charge of Ritual 
Murder — known as the ‘ Blood accusation ’ — against 
Judaism and the Jewish people. 

“The question is one of humanity, civilization, and 
truth. The ‘blood accusation’ is a relic of the days 
of witchcraft and‘black magic’, a cruel and utterly 
baseless libel on Judaism, an insult to the Western 
culture, and a dishonor to the Churches in whose name 
it has been falsely formulated by ignorant fanatics. 
Religious minorities other than the Jews, such as the 
early Christians, the Quakers, and Christian Missionaries 
in China, have been victimized by it. It has been 
denounced by the best men of all ages and creeds. 
The Popes, the founders of the Reformation, the 
Khaliff of Islam, statesmen of every country, together 
with all the great seats of learning in Europe, have 
publicly repudiated it.” 


Reform Jubaigm anb ־Passober 

One thing to me is clear: namely, the urgent present 
duty of all Liberal Jews to observe the Passover. And 
when I say “to observe” it, I mean to observe it proper- 
ly with its ancient symbolism and its ancient forms. 
This means that Liberal Jews must (a) observe the first 
and seventh day of Passover as days of “rest” and wor- 
ship; (b) observe the old ceremonial whereby for seven 
days unleavened bread is eaten at meals. It is also emi- 
nently desirable to retain in some modified form the 
domestic service upon the first night of the festival. . . 
The Passover celebrates the beginning of the self- 
consciousness of Israel; the setting forth of Israel upon 
its mission.. .It is the festival which commemorates 
the giving of a charge, the founding of a mission, the 
institution of a brotherhood, which were intended to 
spread the knowledge of God throughout the world. 

Again, the Passover is the festival of liberty — liberty 
in political life, liberty in moral life, liberty in religious 
life. How immense the range! 

But what is Liberty? It is freedom through law. 
Passover leads on to Pentecost, the festival which cele- 
brates the giving of the Law. 

Claude Montefiore, Outlines of Liberal Judaism, p. 254—6. 



Long must be thy journey, O Israel, jubilee- 
crowned, long must it still continue! But wearied, 
wearied thou wilt never be! Still in thy native 
strength dost thou stand, O incomparable one! Still 
does the youthful blood flow lustily in thy veins! 
Still awaitest thou with the glowing ardor of battle, 
the countless hosts thou wilt in the end marshal for 
thy God. Nor, having marked the path which thou 
hast trod, can we ever doubt thy signal victory at 
last. Rejoice, then, in thy natal feast, O Israel, 
and take from us anew our solemn vows to cling 
unto thee with undying love and faith for ever! 

David Einhorn, Sinai, vol. 1. 


The high aim sanctified by time and by Judaism 
is, that all men be free, all recognize God, all employ 
their spiritual and material powers with full and free 
desire, so that a throne be built for truth and justice 
on this earth, a throne which shall adorn the lowliest 
hut as well as the most glorious palace. 

Samuel Hirsch, The Reform Movement 
in Judaism, by David Philipson, p. 487. 

Freedom is the indispensable condition of goodness’ 
virtue, purity and holiness.. .Take away freedom from 
human nature and whatever remains of it is an anomaly, 
some nameless thing of human form and animal in- 
difference. “Wisdom and cognition”,of which the prophet 
speaks as “the stability of thy times and the fort of 
thy salvation”, are the golden fruits of the free reason, 
the free-willed man only; they ripen not in the dark and 
dismal dungeon of the enslaved soul. 

Isaac Mayer Wise, Sermons bv American 
Rabbis, 1896, p. 18i 

ל 5 ו 


However burdensome the Passover minutiae, espe 
daily in regard to the prohibition of leaven, became 
to the Jewish houshold, the predominant feature was 
always an exuberance of joy. In the darkest days of 
medievalism the synagogue and home resounded with 
song and thanksgiving, and the young imbibed the joy 
and comfort of their elders through the beautiful 
symbols of the feast and the richly adorned tale of the 
deliverance (the Haggadah). The Passover feast with 
its “night of divine watching” endowed the Jew ever 
anew with endurance during the dark night of medieval 
tyranny, and with faith in “the Keeper of Israel who 
slumbereth not nor sleepeth”. Moreover, as the spring- 
tide of nature fills each creature with joy and hope, so 
Israel’s feast of redemption promises the great day of 
liberty to those who still chafe under the yoke of oppres- 
sion. The modern Jew is beginning to see in the reawak- 
ening of his religious and social life in western lands the 
token of the future liberation of all mankind. The Pass- 
over feast brings him the clear and hopeful message of 
freedom for humanity from all bondage of body and of 

Kaufman Kohler, Jewish Theology, p. 462, 


The great redemption holds us with its fascination, 
but only to bid our hearts go out to all the history of our 
race. This people “saved of the Lord with an everlast- 
ing salvation”—this people that gave the world Moses 
and the Prophets and the Saints, that has lived and 
died for God’s truth — this people, we say, is ours. 
We are the sharers of its glories and its humiliations, 
the heirs to its divine promise and its sublime ideals. 
This people, we say moreover, began its life with a 


protest against wrong. It has lived its life protesting 
against wrong. And it has done so by moral force alone. 
Inherently weak, it has been made mighty by its cause, 
so that “no weapon formed against it has prospered” 
—neither persecution nor calumny, neither the sword 
nor the stake, neither the world’s enticements nor the 
persuasive arts of an alien priesthood. Powerful 
nations have tried to destroy it; but they have perished, 
while their would-be victim has lived on. We who 
seemed “appointed to die” are the living history of the 
dead nations; for their annals are written with pen of 
iron upon the sacred soul of our race. ‘This”, we cry, 
“is the finger of God”. A people is not thus won- 
drously preserved to live aimlessly. Still is God’s 
mighty arm outstretched. “As in the days of our coming 
forth out of the land of Egypt God will show us marvel- 
ous things”. 

Morris Joseph, The Message of Judaism, pp. 1012 ־ . 



®fje ^aggabaf) 


HE Haggadah, like the feast which it 
celebrates, is the slow growth of cen- 
turies, re-echoing battle-cries of Israel’s 
heroic struggle for life and for freedom 
Its oldest stratum consists of the Hallel* 
wherein triumphal songs, celebrating 
the deliverance from Egypt, mingle 
with supplications for Israel’s future well-being. These 
were intoned, at the Temple of Jerusalem, by the 
Levitical choirs, during the preparation of the paschal 
sacrifices and were subsequently sung at the table after 
the festive family meal. Of high antiquity, too, are 
the blessings over the wine, the Kiddush, the four ques- 
tions and their answers, based on Deuteronomy XXVI: 
5-9. During the century that followed the destruction 
of the Temple (in the year 70 C.E.), important addi- 
tions were made to the Haggadah, including the homily 
of Rabban Gamaliel, the composite prayer of Rabbi 
Tarfon and Rabbi Akiba asking for the reestablish- 
ment of the sacrificial service, the complete grace 
after the meal and the Birkas Hashir.** 


**Taken to be the Yehalelucho or the Nishmas. See Pe- 
saljim X. 

As the struggle against the Roman Pharaohs grew 
in intensity, the Jewish people welcomed into the 
Haggadah the mathematical disquisitions of the Rab- 
bis Jose the Gallilean, Eliezer and Akiba regarding the 
number of plagues that were visited upon Egypt. As 
a protest against their revilers and tormentors, they 
also embodied into the Pesah ritual the biblical im- 
precations against the heathens that know not God 
and devour Jacob and lay waste his habitation.* 

The character of the Haggadah was further affected 
by the theological ideas which J udaism was called upon 
to combat. An echo of its י onflict with early Chris- 
tianity is found in the strong emphasis laid in the Hag- 
gadah on the fact that Israel’s deliverance was effected 
by God in person, without the aid of intermediaries. 
The further struggle of Judaism against Karaism left a 
marked impress upon the ve'ry structure of the book. 
On the theory that he who dwells at length on the story 
of the Passover is praiseworthy, it became customary to 
include in the Haggadah, passages from the early Mid- 
rashic and the Talmudic writings, dealing with the Exo- 
dus. In the eighth century, when the Karaitic sect, in 
its opposition to Rabbinism, excluded these and other 
passages from the ritual, the masters of the Baby- 
Ionian academies (the Geonim) took steps to standard״ 
ize the homiletical sections of the Haggadah. While 

*Psalm LXXIX: 6-7; LXIX: 26 and Lamentations III: 66. 


the service retained its elasticity for several more gener- 
ations (as evidenced from Saadia Gaon’s and Mai- 
monides’ Haggadahs*) the text as drawn up by Rav 
Amram (about 850 C.E.)was adopted by Spanish 
Jewry and became the standard for all Israel. 

The subsequent additions to the Haggadah consist 
of its poetic numbers. When the Haggadah began to 
circulate in separate book form (in the 13th century;, 
it was enriched by Joseph Tov Elem’s poem “Hasal 
Siddur Pesah” (The Order of the Pesah Service is 
Complete), Jannai’s “Vay’hi Ba-hatzi Hallay’lo” 
(And it Came to Pass at Midnight), and Eliezer Ha- 
Kalir’s “Va-Amartem Zevah Pesah” (And Ye Shall 
Say: This is the Passover Sacrifice), compositions orig- 
inally written for other purposes. In the fifteenth 
century the two anonymous ditties “Addir Hu” and 
“Ki Lo Noeh” were added. About the same time the 
folk-songs “ Enod Mi Yodea”and “Had Gadyo” be- 
came part of the service, largely under German in- 
fluence. The Sephardim have refused to admit them 
into their ritual. The cumulative effect of the varied 
literature of the Haggadah, of “the curious medley of 
legends and songs ”and prayers, captivated the hearts of 
many generations of our people and filled them with a 
sense of special privilege of being part of Israel, the 
champion of God and of liberty. 


It was but natural for reform Judaism, which found 
itself at variance with a number of passages in the 
Haggadah, to construct a ritual for Pesah eve in keeping 
with its religious principles. Among the German at- 
tempts, in this direction, are Leopold Stein’s ritual 
(1841), David Einhorn’s (in his Gebetbuch “Olas To- 
mid”,1858) and S. Maybaum ’s(1893). An English Hag- 

* See A. L. Frumkin’s Siddur Rav Amram, p. 213 ff, and 

Mishneh Torah, Z’manim, Appendix to Hilchos Hometz u-Matzo. 


gadah by H.M. Bien, misnamed “Easter Eve ”,appeared 
in 1886. The first edition of the Union Prayerbook(1892) 
contained a ritual for the Seder, based on Leopold 
Stein’s German work. After its elimination from the 
subsequen t editions of the Union Prayerbook, it was pub- 
lished by its author, I. S. Moses, in separate book form. 
In 1908, the Central Conference of American Rabbis 
issued the Union Haggadah. The work was executed in 
a modern spirit, no longer regarding “rites and symbols 
with the awe that vested them with mystic meaning, or 
supernatural sanction”, but treating them rather as“po- 
tent object-lessons of great events and of sublime prin- 
ciples hallowed and intensified in meaning by ages of 
devout usage”. Among the poetic additions to the 
Haggadah were Leopold Stein’s “ The Festive Cup ” and 
Jannai’s poem “ Vay’hi Ba־hatzi Hallay’lo” both trans- 
lated by Rabbi Henry Berkowitz, and Rabbi G. Gott- 
heil’s hymn “God of Might.” The volume also contain- 
ed the familiar Passover music, as edited by the Society 
of American Cantors, and the setting for “The Festive 
Cup”, composed by the Rev. William Lowenberg. 

The aim of the present edition of the Union Hag- 
gadah is stated in the introduction. The Commit- 
tee on Revision reedited both the Hebrew and the 
English texts of the Union Haggadah and added the 
following musical numbers: “The Springtide of the 
Tear” by Alice Lucas with the traditional music, as 
published in the Union Hymnal; “To Thee Above” 
by James K. Gutheim, with music specially written 
for it by Hugo Brandt; the traditional “Kiddush” 
melody with an accompaniment supplied by Rabbi 
Jacob Singer; traditional settings for Psalms CXI 11 
and CXIV, arranged by D. M. Davis, and the Seph- 
ardic Hallel (Psalm CXVII) from F. L. Cohen’s “Voice 
of Prayer and Praise”; a variation of the “Addir Hu” 


melody for Psalm CXVIII: 1-4; F. Halevy’s set- 
tings for the responses “Zeh Hayyom” and “Hodu 
Ladonoi”; and S. Naumbourg’s “Ono Adonoi”;also 
Alois Kaiser’s music for “An Only Kid”, from Rabbi 
William Rosenau’s “Seder Haggadah ”; and“ America’. 
In addition the committee prepared a new Ap- 
pendix. With the original Committee the present 
Committee on Revision may lay claim to hav- 
ing been guided by “reverent devotion to the sancti- 
fying force of tradition and a due recognition of its 
supreme value as a bond of union”, in its endeavor to 
present for men and women of to-day a Haggadah, 
modern in spirit and social outlook. 


As the principal ritual work for the home, the Hag- 
gadah has enjoyed great popularity. Hundreds of 
learned scholars delighted to comment on its content, 
and innumerable scribes to copy and illuminate its 
text. Since the introduction of printing, the Haggadah 
has appeared in more than a thousand editions. Of 
the twenty-five known illuminated manuscript Hag- 
gadahs, the Sarajevo manuscript deserves special 
mention.* Israel Abrahams writes** that “the 
Sarajevo book must remain supreme as an introduction 
to Jewish art, so long as it continues to be the only 
completely reproduced Hebrew illuminated man- 
uscript of the Middle Ages.” The still unpublished 
Crawford Haggadah (now in the Rylands Library, Man- 
Chester) rivals the Sarajevo manuscript in point of age 
and of artistic excellence. “ The beauty of the Craw- 
ford Haggadah consists just in the text, in the beautiful 

* It was published by Mueller and Von Schlossar, 1898, and 
by Stassof and Guenzberg, 1905. 

** By-Paths in Hebraic Bookland, pp. 91-96. 

margins, full of spirited grotesques and arabesques; 
no doubt (like the Sarajevo manuscript itself) produced 
inSpain under strong North French influence.”* In the 
Sarajevo Haggadah “we have, in the full page drawings, 
depicted the history of Israel from the days of the Crea- 
tion, the patriarchal story, J oseph in Egypt, the comingof 
Moses, the Egyptian plagues, the Exodus, the revelation, 
the temple that is yet to be.”... It is noteworthy that 
in the revelation picture no attempt is made to depict 
the Deity. “Into Moses’ ear a horn conveys the in- 
spired message; but the artist does not introduce God. 

. . . Certainly the drawings, sadly though they lack 
proportion, are realistic. Especially is this true of the por- 
tray al of Lot’s wife transformed into a pillar of salt. Dis- 
proportionate in size, for she is taller than Sodom’s 
loftiest pinnacles, yet the artist has succeeded in sug- 
gesting the gradual stiffening of her figure: we see 
her becoming rigid before our eyes.” 

Rachel Vishnitzer points out the French Gothic style 
in the illustrations of the “Two Medieval Haggadahs” 
of the British Museum.** The one with the fleur-de- 
lis*** exhibits a rich store of fanciful decorated forms. 
“There are lions, dogs, peacocks, salamanders, se»*־ 
pents, herons, griffins, hares and so on. Acorns, pome- 
granates and acanthus-leaves appear with the Gothic 
ivy-leaf as the prominent floral ornaments; then we can 
admire on the margins of the fine vellum sheets amus- 
ing fights between beasts, hare-hunting, little domestic 
scenes, caricatures of monks and various grotesque 
subjects agreeable to the taste of the time, executed with 
delightful finesse of design and coloring. It is very in- 

* Mueller and Von Schlossar describe twenty other extant 
illustrated manuscripts in their above-named book. 

**The Jewish Guardian, April 22, 1921. 

***Brit. Mus. Add. 14,761. 


teresting, moreover, to observe the skillful master of 
this unparalleled decoration, when he paints the human 
form and to see how helpless he becomes then.* 

“The second Haggadah* is quite different in concep- 
tion and in the execution of the paintings. We recog- 
nize there an hcnest attempt at faithfully representing 
nature and of graphic interpretation of scenes from 
Bible history. The paintings are in keeping with the 
text of Exodus. Moses at the burning bush, his 
miracles, the plagues of Egypt, the Exodus from Egypt 
by the Israelites — all the stages of the story — are mi- 
nutely depicted.” 

One of the Haggadahs in the Germanic museum at 
Nuremberg is especially noteworthy for illustrations of 
domestic scenes relating to the Seder service. “The 
fifteenth century Haggadah in the Bibliotheque Nation- 
ale has initials and domestic and historic scenes; while 
an elaborate manuscript in the possession of Baron 
Edmond de Rothschild has highly original domestic 
and biblical scenes executed in quatrocento style.”** 

Since the introduction of printing, about two hundred 
illustrated editions of the Haggadah have made their 
appearance. Their styles are for the most part de- 
termined by the Prague edition of 1526, of the Mantua 
edition of 1560, and of the Venice edition of 1599. 
Though they display a “distinct tendency toward 
monotony”, some of them are not without charm. 

The first edition of the Union Haggadah sought “an 
artistic expression for the Passover sentiment which 
shall reflect the present era”. To this end it reproduced 
Moritz D. Oppenheim’s “Seder Eve”, the picture 

* Or. 1,404 Brit. Mus., exhibiting much similarity with 
Lord Crawford’s manuscript. 

**Joseph Jacobs, Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. VI. p. 144. 


of Moses Ezekiel’s statue “Religious Liberty” and 
the “Seder Dish” from Rosenau’s “Jewish Cer- 
emonial Institutions”. It was also provided with pen- 
and-ink decorations and with pictures of two reliefs 
by Miss Katherine M. Cohen. The present edition 
has retained the three first-mentioned pictures, and 
has added G. Dore’s “The Exodus” and the masterly 
relief of Moses and the Table of the Law, from anltali- 
an Synagogue, dated 1671, reproduced in the Jewish 
Encyclopedia, vol. XI, p.663. The book has been fur- 
tlier enriched by the decorative frontispiece, borders 
and lettering specially prepared for it by Mr. Isadore 
Lipton. He has utilized authentic material from the 
Egyptian monuments and from ancient Jewish life, for 
the purpose of making real to our generation the ever 
fresh story of our deliverance. In his way, he sought 
to accomplish for the twentieth century what the un- 
known illustrators of the Sarajevo, the Crawford, the 
Prague and the Mantua Haggadahs accomplished for 
their times. 


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